Natural Hazards

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 251–273 | Cite as

Disaster risk reduction on non-sovereign islands: La Réunion and Mayotte, France

Original Paper

Abstract

The Islands of Réunion and Mayotte are French territories in the Indian Ocean and are prone to numerous and recurrent hazards as well as to increasing vulnerabilities. This paper examines disaster risk reduction on non-sovereign islands through the case studies of Réunion and Mayotte. The approach used is embedded in standard geographical approaches to risk analysis, focusing on place-based vulnerability, in order to understand disaster risk and disaster risk reduction on both islands. In addition to establishing baseline information and visiting both islands for further data, 21 semi-structured individual interviews were completed to understand the people’s perceptions of the hazards and of their vulnerabilities. Disaster risk reduction strategies, and attitudes from governing bodies implementing the strategies, tend to assume similar vulnerability contexts as mainland France, despite obvious differences on the islands. Many policies are implemented in a top–down manner by those from mainland France who have little interest in, and who do not fully take into consideration, local realities. This paper contributes new case studies to the literature, especially in comparing two non-Anglophone non-sovereign islands, and reinforces recommendations factoring in local contexts when addressing ‘vulnerability of a place’ to disasters.

Keywords

Disaster risk reduction France Mayotte Réunion Vulnerability analysis 

Supplementary material

11069_2010_9566_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1225 kb)

References

  1. Actif N (2008) Des logements plus modernes et plus spacieux. Économie de La Réunion 132:20–21Google Scholar
  2. Bacheré H, Frouté O (2003) Mayotte: recensement de la population du 30 juillet 2002. INSEE Première 940:1–4Google Scholar
  3. Baldacchino G (2004) Autonomous but not sovereign? A review of island sub-nationalism. Can Rev Stud Natl 31(1–2):77–91Google Scholar
  4. Baldacchino G, Milne D (eds) (2000) Lessons from the political economy of small islands: the resourcefulness of jurisdiction. St. Martin’s Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldacchino G, Milne D (eds) (2009) The case for non-sovereignty: lessons from sub-national island jurisdictions. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Becerra S, Herteman M, Fromard F, Lambs L, Muller E, Sauvage S, Sturma A, Walcker R, Sánchez-Perez J (2008) Mangrove et bioremédiation: efficience socio-écologique d’un dispositif expérimental d’épuration des eaux usées à Mayotte. Congrès Mondial sur l’eau, Montpellier, 1–4 Sep 2008Google Scholar
  7. Binet C, Rat M, Magnan JP (2006) Eboulement de la falaise du 24 mars 2006 sur la RN1 (route du littoral) à la Réunion, Conseil Général des Ponts et Chaussées, Rapport no 004717-01Google Scholar
  8. Blanchy S (2002) Mayotte: « française à tout prix » , Presses Universitaires de France, Ethnologie française, Tome XXXVII: 677–687Google Scholar
  9. Bosher L (ed) (2008) Hazards and the built environment. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. BRGM (Bureau de Recherche Géologique et Minière) (2008) Dossier Départemental des Risques Majeurs. BRGM, RéunionGoogle Scholar
  11. Cannon T (2000) Vulnerability analysis and disasters. In: Parker DJ (ed) Floods. Routledge, London, pp 45–55Google Scholar
  12. Carswell G, Jones S (2004) The earthscan reader in environment, development and rural livelihoods. Eathscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Chambers R (1995) Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts? Environ Urban 7(1):173–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chambers R, Conway G (1992) Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century, IDS Discussion Paper 296. IDS (Institute of Development Studies), BrightonGoogle Scholar
  15. CICERO and UNEP/GRID-Arendal (2008) Many strong voices: outline for an assessment project design. CICERO Report 2008:05. CICERO, OsloGoogle Scholar
  16. CIRE (Cellule interrégionale d’épidémiologie de La Réunion-Mayotte) (2005) Épidémiologie du paludisme à Mayotte, État des lieux 2003–2004 et propositions. Institut de Veille Sanitaire, RéunionGoogle Scholar
  17. Croix Rouge Française (2007) Rapport final. Meilleures pratiques et kits de premiers secours pour l’autoprotection des citoyens de l’Union Européenne en cas d’accident domestique ou de catastrophe. Croix Rouge Française, ParisGoogle Scholar
  18. Daly M, Poutasi N, Nelson F, Kohlhase J (2010) Reducing the climate vulnerability of coastal communities in Samoa. J Int Dev 22(2):265–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis I (1987) Safe shelter within unsafe cities. Open House Intl 12(3):5–15Google Scholar
  20. DDE (Direction Départementale de l’Equipement) (2007) Trafics & Accidentologie, Bilan 2007. DDE, RéunionGoogle Scholar
  21. DE (Direction de l’Equipement de Mayotte) (2009) Le logement en accession sociale à Mayotte, Informations DE MayotteGoogle Scholar
  22. de Brettes A, de Carsalade G-Y, Petinelli F, Benoit-Cattin T, Coulaud X, Sassier X, Polycarpe D (2001) Le choléra à Mayotte. Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire 8Google Scholar
  23. Delforge P (2006) Le réseau régional de protection civile. Conférence La Réunion face aux risques naturels gouvernance locale et coopération régionale, 18–19 Sep 2006. Université de la RéunionGoogle Scholar
  24. Dibben C, Chester D (1999) Human vulnerability in volcanic environments: the case of Furnas, Sao Miguel, Azores. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 92:133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DRASS (2005) Maladies infectieuses et parasitaires à Mayotte. Proposition de dispositif d’alerte et de surveillance épidémiologique intégrée. INVS, Saint-MauriceGoogle Scholar
  26. Etkin D (1999) Risk transference and related trends: driving forces towards more mega-disasters. Environ Hazards 1:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Etkin D (2009) Patterns of risk: spatial planning as a strategy for the mitigation of risk from natural hazards, in Fra Paleo, U, building safer communities. Risk governance, Spatial planning, and responses to natural hazards. IOS Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  28. Farming and Forest Office in Mayotte (2006) Les données sur l’eau à Mayotte, http://www.hydro-mayotte.agriculture.gouv.fr/index.htm. Accessed 12 Sep 2009
  29. Farrington J, Carney D, Ashley C, Turton C (2004) Sustainable livelihoods in practice: early applications of concepts in rural areas. The earthscan reader in environment, development and rural livelihoods. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Fordham M (1999) Participatory planning for flood mitigation: models and approaches. Aust J Emerg Manag 13(4):27–34Google Scholar
  31. Gaillard JC (2007) Resilience of traditional societies in facing natural hazards. Disaster Prev Manag 16(4):522–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gaillard JC, Liamzon CC, Villanueva JD (2007) ‘Natural’ disaster? A retrospect into the causes of the late-2004 typhoon disaster in Eastern Luzon, Philippines. Environ Hazards 7(4):257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guillebaud J-C (1976) Les Confettis de l’Empire, L’Histoire immediate. Seuil, ParisGoogle Scholar
  34. Hewitt K (1980) Review of the environment as hazard, by Burton, I, Kates, R. & White, G. (1978). Ann Am Geogr 70(2):306–311Google Scholar
  35. Hewitt K (ed) (1983) Interpretations of calamity from the viewpoint of human ecology. Allen & Unwin, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  36. Hewitt K (1997) Regions of risk: a geographical introduction to disasters. Addison Wesley Longman, EssexGoogle Scholar
  37. Hewitt K, Burton I (1971) The hazardousness of a place: a regional ecology of damaging events. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  38. IFEN (Institut Français de l’Environnement) (2005) La perception sociale des risques naturels. Les Données de l’Environnement 99:1–4Google Scholar
  39. IFEN (Institut Français de l’Environnement) (2006) La société face au risques majeurs, L’environnement en France, Les synthèses: 373-389Google Scholar
  40. INSEE (2002) Expansion du tertiaire et qualification de l’emploi, Evolution de l’emploi 1990–1999. Economie de la Réunion 1er trimestre: 12–13Google Scholar
  41. INSEE (2004) La scolarisation à Mayotte. INSEE Infos 15:1–8Google Scholar
  42. INSEE (2006) Fécondité et mortalité à Mayotte en 2004. INSEE Infos 24:1–4Google Scholar
  43. INSEE (2007) Le revenu des habitants de Mayotte en 2005: hausse des niveaux de vie et baisse des inégalités. INSEE Infos 28:9–12Google Scholar
  44. INSEE (2008) France, portrait social. Les salaires en France. Insee Références, Saint-Denis, RéunionGoogle Scholar
  45. INSEE (2009a) La croissance démographique reste dynamique. INSEE Infos 39:1–4Google Scholar
  46. INSEE (2009b) Tableau Economique de la Réunion. Insee, Saint-Denis, RéunionGoogle Scholar
  47. INSEE (2009c) Niveaux de vie 2001–2006: les inégalités s’accentuent. Économie de La Réunion 134:6–10Google Scholar
  48. Issouf S (2008) Mars 2008, Emeutes, La fuite de Mohamed Bacar embrase Mayotte, MayotteHebdo. http://www.mayottehebdo.com/content/view/289/33. Accessed 2 Sep 2009
  49. IVS (Institut de Veille Sanitaire) (2001) Le choléra à Mayotte. Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire 8. http://www.invs.sante.fr. Accessed 5 Aug 2009
  50. IVS (Institut de Veille Sanitaire) (2005) Épidémiologie du paludisme à Mayotte. État des lieux 2003–2004 et propositions. INVS, Saint-MauriceGoogle Scholar
  51. Jonzo AM (2009) Niveaux de vie 2001–2006: les inégalités s’accentuent. Economie de la Réunion INSEE 134:6–10Google Scholar
  52. Kelfoun K (2006) Aléas et tsunami liés à une éventuelle déstabilisation du Piton de la Fournaise. Conférence La Réunion face aux risques naturels gouvernance locale et coopération régionale, 18–19 Sep 2006. Université de la RéunionGoogle Scholar
  53. Kelman I, Davies M, Mitchell T, Orr I, Conrich B (2006) Island disaster para-diplomacy in the commonwealth. Round Table Commonwealth J Int Aff 95(386):561–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kennedy J, Ashmore J, Babister E, Kelman I (2008) The meaning of ‘Build back better’: evidence from post-tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka. J Conting Crisis Manag 16(1):24–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lewis J (1990) The vulnerability of small island states to sea level rise: the need for holistic strategies. Disasters 14(3):241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lewis J (1999) Development in disaster-prone places: studies of vulnerability. Intermediate Technology Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Lewis J (2009) A island characteristic. Derivative vulnerabilities to indigenous and exogenous hazards. Shima Int J Res Island Cult 3(1):3–15Google Scholar
  58. Lewis J, Kelman I (2010) Places, people and perpetuity: community capacities in ecologies of catastrophe. ACME Int E-J Crit Geogr 9(2):191–220Google Scholar
  59. Louachéni C, Morando M (2007) La croissance démographique reste dynamique. Insee Mayotte Infos no 39: 1–4Google Scholar
  60. Louachéni C, Morando M (2009a) De petits logements pour de grands ménages, Travail-Emploi. Insee Mayotte Infos 41:1Google Scholar
  61. Louachéni C, Morando M (2009b) La progression de l’emploi permet au chômage de baisser, Travail-Emploi. Insee Mayotte Infos 40:1Google Scholar
  62. Mairine P (2006) Itinéraire géologique: La Route du Volcan, Découverte de la Fournaise Ancienne. Université de la Réunion, RéunionGoogle Scholar
  63. Malango Actualité (2009) Mayotte/Comores: naufrage d’un kwassa, 2 morts, 34 disparus, 7 Juin 2009. http://www.malango-mayotte.com. Accessed 2 July 2009
  64. MayotteHebdo (2009) Victimes du qu’en dira-t-on? http://www.mayottehebdo.com/content/view/1379/1. Accessed 21 Aug 2009
  65. MEDAD (Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement et de l’Aménagement Durable) (2007) Définition générale du risque majeur. MEDAD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  66. Méheux K, Dominey-Howes D, Lloyd K (2007) Natural hazard impacts in small island developing states: a review of current knowledge and future research needs. Nat Hazards 40:429–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mercer J, Dominey-Howes D, Kelman I, Lloyd K (2007) The potential for combining indigenous and western knowledge in reducing vulnerability to environmental hazards in small island developing states. Environ Hazards 7:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mercer J, Kelman I, Taranis L, Suchet-Pearson S (2010) Framework for integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge for disaster risk reduction. Disasters 34(1):214–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Météo France (2008) Cyclone season, South West Indian Ocean 2006–2007. Tropical Cyclone Centre, Sainte Clotilde, RéunionGoogle Scholar
  70. Michault A (1998) Insularity and the risks of epidemics in Réunion island. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique 91(1):52–55Google Scholar
  71. Nedellec J-L, Moiriat D (2006) Evaluation et cartographie de l’aléa Mouvements de terrains. Conférence La Réunion face aux risques naturels gouvernance locale et coopération régionale, 18–19 Sep 2006. Université de la RéunionGoogle Scholar
  72. Office de l’eau (Water Office) (2008) Etat de la ressource et des usages de l’eau à la Réunion. Synthèse 2008. 21°Sud, Saint-DenisGoogle Scholar
  73. Okal E, Sladen A, Okal EA (2006) Rodrigues, Mauritius, and Réunion islands field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Earthq Spectra 22(S3):S241–S261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Paillat H (2007) Présentation de Mayotte. Conseil Général de Mayotte. http://www.ac-toulouse.fr/automne_modules_files/pDocs/public/r531_61_presentation_de_mayotte.doc. Accessed 12 Sep 2009
  75. Pelling M, Uitto JI (2001) Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change. Environ Hazards 3(2):49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reno F, Gold-Dalg H (1990) L’outre-mer 1990. Le temps des incertitudes. Annuaire des collectivités locales, Année 1991, 11(1): 1105–1119Google Scholar
  77. Roinsard N (2005) Une sociologie des ré-affiliations. Les effets sociaux du RMI à La Réunion. Dissertation, Université de NantesGoogle Scholar
  78. Sarantakos S (2005) Social research. Palgrave Macmillan, HoundmillsGoogle Scholar
  79. Scoones I (1998) Sustainable rural livelihoods: a framework for analysis, working paper 72. Institute of Development Studies, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  80. Tibby J, Lane MB, Gell PA (2007) Local knowledge and environmental management: a cautionary tale from Lake Ainsworth, New South Wales, Australia. Environ Conserv 34(4):334–341Google Scholar
  81. Tobin GA (1995) The levee love affair: a stormy relationship. Water Resour Bull 31(3):359–367Google Scholar
  82. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2004) Indian Ocean Islands, GIWA Regional assessment 45b. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya and University of Kalmar, KalmarGoogle Scholar
  83. Weinstein P, Ravi S (2008) The failure of colonial ‘distancing’: changing representations of the 2005–06 chikungunya epidemic in Réunion, France. Singap J Trop Geogr 29:221–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wisner B, Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I (2004) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters, 2nd edn. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  85. Wu Yao Kwang O (2003) Île Mayotte—Fin de la polygamie. Gazette des femmes 25(4):34–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Applied SciencesNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Center for International Climate and Environmental Research–Oslo (CICERO)Blindern, OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations