Natural Hazards

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 153–178 | Cite as

Physical and economic losses sustained by the industry in the 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake

  • Eser Durukal
  • Mustafa ErdikEmail author
Original Paper


The aim of this article is to contribute with first-hand data on damage and failure modes at industrial facilities subject to earthquake. Physical and economic losses faced by the industry in the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake are summarized. Industrial-sector based, as well as component-based description of earthquake performance and damage are provided. The results of the post-earthquake questionnaire survey designed and executed with the aim of gathering factual data from industrial facilities that experienced physical damages, as well as suffered from business interruption losses are presented. Generalized-intensity-based mean damage ratios for industrial facilities in Turkey are given. The information provided in this article can be used for the first order estimation of building, machinery and equipment, as well as stock and business interruption losses associated with the industry during earthquakes in Turkey.


Kocaeli earthquake Turkey Industry Industrial vulnerability Earthquake damage 



We would like to thank Munich-Re and Dr. Anselm Smolka for their kind support. Marsh Istanbul kindly provided assistance in publishing the project report and dissemination of project results. Mr. Serkan Cimilli of Marsh Istanbul contributed generously in the questionnaire survey. Dr. Eren Uçkan, Dr. Karin Şeşetyan and Mine B. Demircioğlu of Bogazici University assisted us throughout the study. We would also like to express our gratitude to Dr. Elisabeth Krausmann, Dr. Ana Maria Cruz and to two anonymous reviewers whose comments help us to improve the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earthquake Engineering, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research InstituteBoğaziçi UniversityCengelkoy, IstanbulTurkey

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