Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 415–425 | Cite as

Manufactured home building regulations and the February 2, 2007 Florida tornadoes

  • Kevin M. Simmons
  • Daniel SutterEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the state of Florida implemented new wind load and tie-down regulations for manufactured homes following Hurricane Andrew. This article examines the effect of the new regulations on the likelihood that occupants of mobile homes would survive a tornado. On February 2, 2007, three tornadoes struck central Florida, resulting in 21 deaths in Lake County, all in manufactured homes. The deaths occurred almost exclusively in homes rated as leveled by the county tax appraiser. Manufactured homes built to the new regulations, however, were significantly less likely to be leveled. Regression analysis finds that manufactured homes built to the post-Andrew requirements were 79% less likely to be leveled than homes built prior to the HUD Code in 1976, and 68% less likely to be leveled than homes built after 1976 but before the 1994 wind load regulations. Construction of all manufactured homes in the tornado paths to the wind load and tie-down requirements could have reduced fatalities by 70%.

Keywords

Tornadoes Manufactured homes Fatalities Natural hazards 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Peter Peebles and Robbie Ross of the Lake County Tax Appraiser’s Office, Lake County Emergency Manager Jerry Smith, and Bart Hagemayer of the National Weather Service Melbourne Office for their assistance. This research was funded by a Quick Response Grant from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado.

References

  1. American Meteorological Society (1997) Policy statement: mobile homes and severe windstorms. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78(5):850–851Google Scholar
  2. Beamish JG, Goss RC, Aitles JH, Kim Y (2001) Not a trailer anymore: perceptions of manufactured housing. Housing Policy Debate 12(2):373–392Google Scholar
  3. Brooks HE, Doswell CA III (2002) Deaths in the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado from a historical perspective. Weather Forecast 17:354–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Golden JH, Adams CR (2000) The tornado problem: forecast, warning, and response. Nat Hazards Rev 1:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Golden JH, Snow JT (1991) Mitigation against extreme windstorms. Rev Geophys 29(4):477–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grosskopf KR (2005) Assessing the effectiveness of mitigation: a case study of manufactured housing and the 2004 hurricane season. J Emerg Manage 3(5):27–32Google Scholar
  7. Hagemayer BC (1997) Peninsular Florida tornado outbreaks. Weather Forecast 12:399–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kunreuther H (1996) Mitigating disaster losses through insurance. J Risk Uncertain 12:171–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Manufactured Housing Institute (2006) Understanding today’s manufactured housing. Available online at http://www.manufacturedhousing.org/understanding_today2006/mhi_understanding_today.pdf. Cited 15 June 2007
  10. Ryland HG (2006) Providing economic incentives to build disaster resistant structures. In: Daniels R, Kettl D, Kunreuther H (eds) On risk and disaster. University of Pennsylvania Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Schmidlin TW, Hammer B, Knabe J (2001) Tornado shelters in mobile home parks in the United States. J Am Soc Prof Emerg Plan 8:1–15Google Scholar
  12. Simmons KM, Sutter D (2006) Direct estimation of the cost effectiveness of Tornado shelters. Risk Anal 26:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Simmons KM, Sutter D (2007) Tornado shelters and the manufactured home parks market. Nat Hazards 43:365–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Smith DA, Chappell K, Mehta KC, Letchford CW (2003) Full scale testing of a manufactured house in the Propwash of a C130 Aircraft. In: Proceedings 11th international conference on wind engineeringGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economics and BusinessAustin CollegeShermanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Economics and FinanceUniversity of Texas – Pan AmericanEdinburgUSA

Personalised recommendations