Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 173–184 | Cite as

Measuring Tsunami Preparedness in Coastal Washington, United States

  • D. Johnston
  • D. Paton
  • G. L. Crawford
  • K. Ronan
  • B. Houghton
  • P. Bürgelt
Article

Abstract

A survey of over 300 residents’ and visitors’ (non-residents) perceptions of tsunami hazards was carried out along the west coast of Washington State during August and September 2001. The study quantified respondents’ preparedness to deal with tsunami hazards. Despite success in disseminating hazard information, levels of preparedness were recorded at low to moderate levels. This finding is discussed in regard to the way in which people interpret hazard information and its implications for the process of adjustment adoption or preparedness. These data are also used to define strategies for enhancing preparedness. Strategies involve maintaining and enhancing hazard knowledge and risk perception, promoting the development of preparatory intentions, and facilitating the conversion of these intentions into sustained preparedness. A second phase of work began in February 2003, consisting of a series of focus groups which examined beliefs regarding preparedness and warnings, and a school survey. Preliminary findings of this work are presented.

Keywords

tsunami public education warnings warning systems preparedness evacuation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atwater, B. F. 1992Geologic evidence for earthquakes during the past 2000 years along the Copalis River, southern coastal Washington.J. Geophys. Res9719011919Google Scholar
  2. Atwater, B. F., Nelson, A. R., Clague, J. J., Carver, G. A., Yamaguchi, D. K., Bobrowsky, P. T., Bourgeois, J., Palmer, S. P.,  et al. 1995Summary of coastal geologic evidence for past great earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zoneEarthquake Spectra.11118Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, P., Murphy, S. 1997Psychology and Health Promotion.Open University PressBuckinghamGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernard, E. N.: 2001, The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Summary. In: Proceedings of the International Tsunami Symposium 2001 (ITS 2001) (on CD-ROM), NTHMP Review Session, R-1, Seattle, WA, 7–10 August 2001, pp. 21–27. http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/its2001/. Google Scholar
  5. Browne, J., Sullivan, G. 1999Analysing in-depth interview data using grounded theoryMinichello, V.Sullivan, G.Greenwood, K.Axford, R. eds. Handbook for Research Methods in the Health Sciences.Addison-WesleySydney575611Google Scholar
  6. Chamberlain, K. 1999Using grounded theory in health psychology.Murray, M.Chamberlain, K. eds. Qualitative Health Psychology: Theories and Methods.Sage PublicationsLondon183201Google Scholar
  7. Dalton, J. H., Elias, M. J., Wandersman, A. 2001Community Psychology.WadsworthBelmont, CAGoogle Scholar
  8. Gregg, C. E., Houghton, B. F., Johnston, D. M., Paton, D., Swanson, D. 2004The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoesHawaii. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res130179196Google Scholar
  9. Henwood, K. L., Pidgeon, N. F. 1992Qualitative research and psychological theorizingJ. Psychol.8397111Google Scholar
  10. Johnston, D. M., Bebbington, M. S., Lai, C.-D., Houghton, B., Paton, D. 1999Volcanic hazard perceptions: Comparative shifts in knowledge and riskDisaster Prev. Manage.8118126Google Scholar
  11. Johnston, D. M., Benton, K. 1998Volcanic hazard perceptions in Inglewood, New Zealand.Aust. J. Disaster Trauma Stud218Google Scholar
  12. Johnston, D. M., Driedger, C., Houghton, B., Ronan, K., and Paton, D.: 2001, Children’s risk perceptions and preparedness: A hazard education assessment in four communities around Mount Rainier, U.S.A.–Preliminary results. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Science Report 2001/02.Google Scholar
  13. Johnston, D. M., Houghton, B.F. 1995Secondary school children’s perceptions of natural hazards in the central North IslandNew Zealand J. Geogr.991826Google Scholar
  14. Johnston, D. M., Paton, D., Houghton, B., Becker, J., and Crumbie, G.,: 2002, Results of the August–September 2001 Washington State Tsunami Survey. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Science Report 2002/17, 35 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Jonientz-Trisler, C. and Mullin, J.: 1999, 1997–1999 Activities of the Tsunami Mitigation Subcommittee: A Report to the Steering Committee NTHMP. FEMA Region 10 publication, 45 pp., Appendices. Google Scholar
  16. Lindell, M. K., Whitney, D. J. 2000Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustmentRisk Anal.201325Google Scholar
  17. Mulilis, J.-P., Duval, T., Lippa, R. 1990The effects of a large, destructive local earthquake on earthquake preparedness as assessed by an earthquake preparedness scaleNat. Hazards3357371Google Scholar
  18. Mulilis, J.-P., Duval, T. S. 1995Negative threat appeals and earthquake preparedness: A person-relative-to-event (PrE) model of coping with threatJ. Appl. Soc. Psychol.2513191339Google Scholar
  19. Paton, D. 2000Emergency Planning: Integrating community development, community resilience and hazard mitigation.J. Am. Soc. Prof. Emerg. Manage7109118Google Scholar
  20. Paton, D. 2003Disaster preparedness: a social-cognitive perspectiveDisaster Prev. Manage.12210216Google Scholar
  21. Paton, D., Millar, M., Johnston, D. 2001Community resilience to volcanic hazard consequencesNat. Hazards24157169Google Scholar
  22. Paton, D., Smith, L., Johnston, D., Johnston, M., and Ronan, K.: 2003a, Developing a model to predict the adoption of natural hazard risk reduction and preparatory adjustments. EQC Project Report, No. 01–479, Wellington, Earthquake Commission, New Zealand. Google Scholar
  23. Paton, D., Smith, L. M., and Johnston, D.: 2003b, When good intentions turn bad: Promoting disaster preparedness. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Australian Disaster Conference, Mt. Macedon, Victoria. Google Scholar
  24. Ronan, K. R., Johnston, D. M. 2001Correlates of hazard education programs for youthRisk Anal.2110551063Google Scholar
  25. Ronan, K. R., Johnston, D. M. 2003Hazards education for youth: A quasi-experimental investigationRisk Anal.2310091020Google Scholar
  26. Strauss, A., Corbin, J. 1990Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques.SageLondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Walsh, J., Caruthers, C. G., Heinitz, A. C., Myers, E. P., Baptista, A. C., Erdakos, G. B., and Kamphaus, R. A.: 2000, Tsunami Hazard Map of the Southern Washington Coast: Modeled Tsunami Inundation from a Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquake. Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources Geological Map GM-9.Google Scholar
  28. Wilson, B. W. and Torum, A.: 1972, Runup heights of the major tsunami on North American coasts. In: National Research Council Committee on the Alaska Earthquake, 1972, The great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 – Oceanography and Coastal Engineering, pp. 3158–3180. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Johnston
    • 1
  • D. Paton
    • 2
  • G. L. Crawford
    • 3
  • K. Ronan
    • 4
  • B. Houghton
    • 5
  • P. Bürgelt
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Geological and Nuclear ScienceLower HuttNew Zealand
  2. 2.University of TasmaniaLauncestonAustralia
  3. 3.Washington State Military Department, Emergency Management DivisionG.L.CrawfordCamp MurrayUSA
  4. 4.Massey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  5. 5.University of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations