Networks and Spatial Economics

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 1027–1050 | Cite as

Network Design Model to Integrate Shelter Assignment with Contraflow Operations in Emergency Evacuation Planning

  • Xiaozheng He
  • Hong Zheng
  • Srinivas PeetaEmail author
  • Yongfu Li


In traditional emergency evacuation planning, shelter assignment and contraflow operations are determined sequentially. In this paper, we show that these two types of network design should be considered simultaneously to achieve a better evacuation performance. A mixed integer linear program is proposed, in which an earliest arrival flow model is employed to describe the underlying system optimum evacuation traffic flow pattern. The embedded earliest arrival flow model, built upon a node-link network representation, helps to maintain a small problem size. To address the computational difficulty, an accelerated Benders decomposition algorithm is developed to leverage the separable structure of the proposed model. Numerical experiments are used to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution algorithm. The results illustrate that the integrated consideration of shelter assignment and contraflow operations in evacuation planning facilitates the effective usage of the evacuation network capacity to further reduce the total system travel time in emergency evacuation.


Evacuation planning Integrated network design Shelter location allocation Contraflow Mixed integer linear program Benders decomposition Local branching 



This work is based on funding provided by the U.S. Department of Transportation through the NEXTRANS Center, the USDOT Region 5 University Transportation Center, and partly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.61304197), the Scientific and Technological Talents Project of Chongqing (Grant No. cstc2014kjrc-qnrc30002), and National Key Research and Development Program under Grant No. 2016YFB0100906. The authors are solely responsible for the contents of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  2. 2.NEXTRANS CenterPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  3. 3.North Central Texas Council of GovernmentsArlingtonUSA
  4. 4.School of Civil EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  5. 5.College of AutomationChongqing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsChongqingChina

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