Networks and Spatial Economics

, Volume 6, Issue 3–4, pp 293–311

Travel Time Reliability in Vehicle Routing and Scheduling with Time Windows



This paper presents calibration of the Vehicle Routing and scheduling Problems with Time Windows-Probabilistic (VRPTW-P) model which takes into account the uncertainty of travel times. Probe vehicle data of travel times were obtained from usual operation of pickup-delivery trucks in South Osaka area. The optimal solution of the VRPTW-P model resulted in reducing total cost, running times and CO2, NOx and Particle Materials (PM) emissions compared with the usual operation. This is attributed to better routing of VRPTW-P to choose more reliable roads. Therefore, VRPTW-P can contribute to establish efficient and environmentally friendly delivery systems in urban area.


Urban freight transport ITS Optimisation City logistics Travel times 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EngineeringKyoto University, JapanKyotoJapan

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