Dynamics of communication protocol diffusion: the case of multipath TCP
- 120 Downloads
During the last decade the Internet has faced an architectural stagnation due to lack of wide scale adoption of new communication protocols. A significant reason for non-adoption is that the conflicting interests of networked stakeholders involved in the diffusion process are not understood or taken into account during the protocol development. This paper increases understanding of the dynamics of communication protocol diffusion and provides feedback to protocol development by studying the case of Multipath TCP (MPTCP). Firstly, we introduce a protocol development process which builds on the existing diffusion of innovation theories. Secondly, a quantitative analysis using system dynamics is provided to evaluate the criticality of the factors affecting the MPTCP diffusion. The diffusion of communication protocols is found to follow three adoption models differentiated by the basis of adoption decision. The key finding is that unintentional adoption, alongside device acquisitions or operating system updates, adds a new dimension to the diffusion of innovations theory and may have a significant impact on protocol diffusion. The cross-side network effects between different adopter groups play also an important role and may lead to either market pull or technology push type of diffusion depending on which stakeholder starts to adopt first. Although MPTCP is used as an example protocol, the findings can be also applied to the diffusion studies of other communication protocols.
KeywordsProtocol diffusion Adoption Multipath TCP System dynamics
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- 3.Ford, A., Raiciu, C., Handley, M., Barré, S., & Iyengar, J. (2011). Architectural guidelines for multipath TCP dEvelopment. RFC 6182. Available at: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6182. Accessed 4 October 2011.
- 5.Raiciu, C., Pluntke, C., Barré, S., Greenhalgh, A., Wischik, D., &Handley, M. (2010). Data centre networking with multipath TCP. 9th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-IX), Monterey, USA (20–21 October 2010).Google Scholar
- 6.Levä, T., Warma, H., Ford, A., Kostopoulos, A., Heinrich, B., Widera, R., et al. (2010). Business aspects of multipath TCP adoption. In G. Tselentis, A. Galis, A. Gavras, S. Krco, V. Lotz, E. Simperl, B. Stiller, & T. Zahariadis (Eds.), Towards the future internet (pp. 21–30). Amsterdam: IOS Press.Google Scholar
- 7.Kostopoulos, A., Warma, H., Levä, T., Heinrich, B., Ford, A., & Eggert, L. (2010). Towards multipath TCP adoption: challenges and opportunities. 6th Euro-NF Conference on Next Generation Internet (NGI 2010), Paris, France (2–4 June 2010).Google Scholar
- 8.Warma, H., Levä, T., Eggert, L., Hämmäinen, H., & Manner, J. (2010). Mobile internet in stereo: an end-to-end scenario. 3rd Workshop on Economic Traffic Management (ETM 2010), Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 6 September 2010.Google Scholar
- 9.Sterman, J. (2000). Business dynamics: Systems thinking and modeling for a complex world. Irwin: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- 10.Kelic, A. (2005). Networking technology adoption: System dynamics modeling of fiber-to-the-home, PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- 11.Thun, J. H., Grössler, A., & Milling, P. M. (2000). The diffusion of goods considering network externalities: a system dynamics-based approach. 18th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Bergen, Norway, 8 August 2000.Google Scholar
- 12.Trott, P. (2008). Innovation management and new product development. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- 13.Carpenter, B. (1996). Architectural principles of the internet. RFC 1958. Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1958.txt. Accessed 12 October 2011.
- 14.Bush, R., & Meyer, D. (2002). Some internet architectural guidelines and philosophy. RFC 3439. Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3439.txt. Accessed 12 October 2011.
- 17.Ford, A., Eardley, P., & van Schewick, B. (2009). New design principles for the internet. International Workshop on the Network of the Future (Future-Net’09), Dresden, Germany (18 June 2009).Google Scholar
- 18.Kalogiros, C., Kostopoulos, A., & Ford, A. (2009). On designing for tussle: Future internet in retrospect. 15th Eunice International Workshop (EUNICE 2009). Barcelona, Spain, 7–9 September 2009.Google Scholar
- 23.Joseph, D., Shetty, N., Chuang, J., & Stoica, I. (2007). Modeling the adoption of new network architectures. International Conference on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies (CoNEXT’07), New York, USA.Google Scholar
- 25.Kivi, A., Smura, T., & Töyli, J. (2009). Diffusion of mobile handset features in Finland. 8th International Conference on Mobile Business, Dalian, China, 26–28 June 2009.Google Scholar
- 26.Kivi, A., Smura, T., & Töyli, J. (2012). Technology product evolution and the diffusion of new product features. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2011.06.001.
- 27.Forrester, J. W. (1961). Industrial dynamics. Productivity Press.Google Scholar
- 28.Labovitz, C., Iekel-Johnson, S., McPherson, D., Oberheide, J., & Jahanian, F. (2010). Internet inter-domain traffic, Sigcomm’10, New Delhi, India, 30 August–3 September 2010.Google Scholar
- 29.Gompertz, B. (1825). On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies. Philosophical Transactions Series I, 115, 513–583.Google Scholar
- 30.IPv6 Forum (2010). IPv6 historic timeline. Available at: http://www.ipv6forum.org.au/timeline.php. Accessed 30 November 2010.
- 31.Medina, A., Allman, M., & Floyd, S. (2004). Measuring interactions between transport protocols and middleboxes, 4th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement (IMC 2004), Taormina, Italy, 25–27 October 2004.Google Scholar
- 33.Ventana Systems Inc (2010). Product webpage. Available at: http://www.vensim.com. Accessed 4 October 2011.
- 34.Powersim (2011). Product webpage. Available at: http://www.powersim.com. Accessed 5 October 2011.
- 35.Optisim (2010). Software webpage. Available at: http://www.optisim.org/QLENG/. Accessed 5 October, 2011.