Design and evaluation of road pricing: state-of-the-art and methodological advances

Article

Abstract

This article provides an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art and describes methodological advances in the design and evaluation of road network pricing schemes. A number of paradigm shifts from the two polar cases of the marginal social cost pricing of road traffic congestion and revenue-maximizing road toll pricing are analyzed, as induced by the need to address realistic design complexities and constraints. The crucial role of the joint consideration of pricing strategies with optimal capacity provision and several network management measures is manifested and an integrated evaluation framework is suggested to incorporate a wide range of road pricing impacts into the scheme design process.

Keywords

Transport networks Congestion pricing Road pricing Network pricing Network design Private toll road competition Capacity investments Evaluation of pricing schemes 

References

  1. 1.
    Ababutain, A. Y., & Bullen, A. G. R. (2003). Multicriteria decision-making model for selection of Build-Operate-Transfer toll road proposals in the public sector. Transportation Research Record, 1848, 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Deek, H., Chandra, S. R., Emam, E. B., & Klodzinski, J. (2007). Evaluating effects of toll strategies on route diversion and travel times for origin–destination pairs in a regional transportation network. Transportation Research Record, 2035, 205–215. doi:10.3141/2035-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Altman, E., & Wynter, L. (2004). Equilibrium, games, and pricing in transportation and telecommunication networks. Networks and Spatial Economics, 4(1), 7–21. doi:10.1023/B:NETS.0000015653.52983.61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Álvarez, Ó., Cantos, P., & García, L. (2007). The value of time and transport policies in a parallel road network. Transport Policy, 14(5), 366–376. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2007.04.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anas, A., & Xu, R. (1999). Congestion, land use, and job dispersion: A general equilibrium model. Journal of Urban Economics, 45(3), 451–473. doi:10.1006/juec.1998.2104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anas, A., & Rhee, H.-J. (2006). Curbing excess sprawl with congestion tolls and urban boundaries. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 36(4), 510–541. doi:10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2006.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anas, A., & Pines, D. (2008). Anti-sprawl policies in a system of congested cities. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 38(5), 408–423. doi:10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2008.05.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anderson, D. (1989). Infrastructure pricing policies and the public revenue in African countries. World Development, 17(4), 525–542. doi:10.1016/0305-750X(89)90260-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arentze, T., Hofman, F., & Timmermans, H. (2004). Predicting multi-faceted activity–travel adjustment strategies in response to possible congestion pricing scenarios using an Internet-based stated adaptation experiment. Transport Policy, 11(1), 31–41. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(03)00016-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arentze, T., & Timmermans, H. (2007). Congestion pricing scenarios and change of job or residential location: Results of a stated adaptation experiment. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(1), 56–61. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2006.02.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Armelius, H. (2005). An integrated approach to urban road pricing. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 39(1), 75–92.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Armelius, H., & Hultkrantz, L. (2006). The politico-economic link between public transport and road pricing: An ex-ante study of the Stockholm road-pricing trial. Transport Policy, 13(1), 162–172. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Armstrong-Wright, A. T. (1986). Road pricing and user restraint: Opportunities and constraints in developing countries. Transportation Research Part A, 20(2), 123–127. doi:10.1016/0191-2607(86)90038-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arnott, R., De Palma, A., & Lindsey, R. (1992). Route choice with heterogeneous drivers and group-specific congestion costs. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 22(1), 71–102. doi:10.1016/0166-0462(92)90026-W.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arnott, R., De Palma, A., & Lindsey, R. (1993). A structural model of peak congestion: A traffic bottleneck with elastic demand. The American Economic Review, 83(1), 161–179.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arnott, R., & Kraus, M. (1995). Financing capacity in the bottleneck model. Journal of Urban Economics, 38(3), 272–290. doi:10.1006/juec.1995.1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arnott, R. (1998). Congestion tolling and urban spatial structure. Journal of Regional Science, 38(3), 495–504. doi:10.1111/0022-4146.00105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arnott, R., & Yan, A. (2000). The two-mode problem: Second-best pricing and capacity. Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies, 12(3), 170–199. doi:10.1111/j.1467-940X.2000.00077.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arnott, R. (2007). Congestion tolling with agglomeration externalities. Journal of Urban Economics, 62(2), 187–203. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2007.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bai, L., Hearn, D. W., & Lawphongpanich, S. (2004). Decomposition techniques for the minimum toll revenue problem. Networks, 44(1), 142–150. doi:10.1002/net.20024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Balwani, A., & Singh, S. (2009). Network impacts of distance-based road user charging. NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking (this issue).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barker, T., & Köhler, J. (1999). Charging for road freight in the EU: Economic implications of a weigh-in-motion tax. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 34(3), 311–331.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barker, W. G., & Polzin, S. E. (2004). Synergies of bus rapid transit and high-occupancy toll lanes: Simulation of bus rapid transit in congested corridor with roadway value pricing. Transportation Research Record, 1884, 3–9. doi:10.3141/1884-01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barter, P. A. (2005). A vehicle quota integrated with road usage pricing: A mechanism to complete the phase-out of high fixed vehicle taxes in Singapore. Transport Policy, 12(6), 525–536. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.05.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bartin, B., Mudigonda, S., & Ozbay, K. (2007). Impact of electronic toll collection on air pollution levels: Estimation using microscopic simulation model of large-scale transportation network. Transportation Research Record, 2011, 68–77. doi:10.3141/2011-08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Basso, L. J. (2008). Airport deregulation: Effects on pricing and capacity. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 26(4), 1015–1031. doi:10.1016/j.ijindorg.2007.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Basso, L. J., & Zhang, A. (2008a). Sequential peak-load pricing: The case of airports and airlines. The Canadian Journal of Economics. Revue Canadienne d’Economique, 41(3), 1087–1119.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Basso, L. J., & Zhang, A. (2008b). On the relationship between airport pricing models. Transportation Research Part B, 42(9), 725–735. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2008.01.005.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bazzan, A. L. C., & Junges, R. (2006). Traffic network equilibrium using congestion tolls: A case study. In A. L. C. Bazzan, B. Chaib Draa, F. Kluegl, & S. Ossowski (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th workshop on agents in traffic and transportation (pp. 1–8). New York, NY: ACM.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beevers, S. D., & Carslaw, D. C. (2005). The impact of congestion charging on vehicle emissions in London. Atmospheric Environment, 39(36), 6875–6884. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.08.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bekiaris, E., & Nakanishi, Y. (Eds.) (2004). Economic impacts of intelligent transportation systems: Innovations and case studies. Research in transportation economics, 8. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bellei, G., Bielli, M., & Gastaldi, M. (1995). Simulation exercise on time perception parameters in discrete-time dynamic assignment models. International Transactions in Operational Research, 2(1), 61–74. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3995.1995.tb00005.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bellei, G., Gentile, G., & Papola, N. (2000). Tolls and transit frequencies optimization. In K. Wang, G. Xiao, & J. Ji (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on transportation and traffic studies (pp. 674–681). Reston, VA: ASCE.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bellei, G., Gentile, G., & Papola, N. (2002). Network pricing optimization in multi-user and multimodal context with elastic demand. Transportation Research Part B, 36(9), 779–798. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(01)00030-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ben-Ayed, O., Boyce, D. E., & Blair, C. E. (1988). A general bi-level programming formulation of the network design problem. Transportation Research Part B, 22(4), 311–318. doi:10.1016/0191-2615(88)90006-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bergendorff, P., Hearn, D. W., & Ramana, M. V. (1997). Congestion toll pricing of traffic networks. In P. M. Pardalos, D. W. Hearn, & W. W. Hager (Eds.), Network optimization, lecture notes in economics and mathematical systems (Vol. 450, pp. 51–71). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Berglas, E., Fresko, D., & Pines, D. (1984). Right of way and congestion toll. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 18(2), 165–187.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bertini, R. L., & Rufolo, A. M. (2004). Technology considerations for the implementation of a statewide road user fee system. In E. Bekiaris, Y. Nakanishi (Eds.), Economic impacts of intelligent transportation systems: Innovations and case studies. Research in transportation economics, (Vol. 8, pp. 337–361). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bertsimas, D., & Perakis, G. (2006). Dynamic pricing: A learning approach. In S. Lawphongpanich, D. W. Hearn, & M. J. Smith (Eds.), Mathematical and computational models for congestion charging (pp. 45–79). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bichsel, R. (2001). Should road users pay the full cost of road provision? Journal of Urban Economics, 50(1), 367–383. doi:10.1006/juec.2001.2221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Blythe, P. T. (2005). Congestion charging: Technical options for the delivery of future UK policy. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 571–587.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bonsall, P., & Kelly, C. (2005). Road user charging and social exclusion: The impact of congestion charges on at-risk groups. Transport Policy, 12(5), 406–418. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.06.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bonsall, P., Shiresa, J., Mauleb, J., Matthews, B., & Beale, J. (2007). Responses to complex pricing signals: Theory, evidence and implications for road pricing. Transportation Research Part A, 41(7), 672–683.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Borins, S. F. (1981). The effect of pricing policy on the optimum timing of investments in transport facilities. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 15(2), 121–133.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bouhtou, M., Erbs, G., & Minoux, M. (2006). Joint optimization of pricing and resource allocation in competitive telecommunications networks. Networks, 50(1), 37–49. doi:10.1002/net.20164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bousquet, F., & Fayard, A. (2001). Road infrastructure concession practice in Europe. World Bank Policy Research Working Papers, 2675. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Boyce, D. E., & Mattsson, L.-G. (1999). Modeling residential location in relation to housing location and road tolls on congested urban highway networks. Transportation Research Part B, 33(8), 581–591. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(99)00007-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Braid, R. M. (1989). Uniform versus peak-load pricing of a bottleneck with elastic demand. Journal of Urban Economics, 26(3), 320–327. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(89)90005-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brownstone, D., & Small, K. A. (2005). Valuing time and reliability: Assessing the evidence from road pricing demonstrations. Transportation Research Part A, 39(4), 279–293.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bureau, B., & Glachan, M. (2008). Distributional effects of road pricing: Assessment of nine scenarios for Paris. Transportation Research Part A, 42(7), 994–1007. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2008.02.001.
  51. 51.
    Burris, M. W., & Pendyala, R. M. (2002). Discrete choice models of traveller participation in differential time of day pricing programs. Transport Policy, 9(3), 241–451. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00002-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Burris, M. W., Konduru, K. K., & Swenson, C. R. (2004). Long-run changes in driver behavior due to variable tolls. Transportation Research Record, 1864, 78–85. doi:10.3141/1864-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Burris, M. W. (2006). Incorporating variable toll rates in transportation planning models. International Journal of Transport Economics, 33(3), 351–368.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Button, K. J., & Verhoef, E. T. (Eds.) (1998). Road pricing, traffic congestion and the environment: Issues of efficiency and social feasibility. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cain, A., Burris, M. W., & Pendyala, R. M. (2001). Impact of variable pricing on temporal distribution of travel demand. Transportation Research Record, 1747, 36–43. doi:10.3141/1747-05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Calfee, J., & Winston, C. (1998). The value of automobile travel time: Implications for congestion policy. Journal of Public Economics, 69(1), 83–102. doi:10.1016/S0047-2727(97)00095-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Calthrop, E., & Proost, S. (1998). Road transport externalities. Environmental and Resource Economics, 11(3–4), 335–348. doi:10.1023/A:1008267917001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Carey, M., & Srinivasan, A. (1993). Externalities, average and marginal costs, and tolls on congested networks with time-varying flows. Operations Research, 41(1), 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chan, K. S., & Lam, W. H. K. (2005). Impact of road pricing on road network reliability. Journal of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 6, 2060–2075.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chang, M.-S., & Hsueh, C.-F. (2006). A dynamic road pricing model for freeway electronic toll collection systems under Build-Operate-Transfer arrangements. Transportation Planning and Technology, 29(2), 91–104. doi:10.1080/03081060600753321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chau, C. K., & Sim, K. M. (2003). The price of anarchy for non-atomic congestion games with symmetric cost maps and elastic demands. Operations Research Letters, 31(5), 327–334. doi:10.1016/S0167-6377(03)00030-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chen, M., Bernstein, D. H., Chien, S. I. J., & Mouskos, K. C. (1999a). Simplified formulation of the toll design problem. Transportation Research Record, 1667, 88–95. doi:10.3141/1667-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chen, H.-K., Hsueh, C.-F., & Wang, C.-Y. (1999b). The dynamic system-optimal route choice problem and toll policies. Transportation Planning and Technology, 22(3), 201–228. doi:10.1080/03081069908717628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chen, M., Bernstein, D. H., & Spasovic, L. N. (2004). Toll-design problem with stochastic route choice. Environment and Planning. B, Planning & Design, 31, 731–742. doi:10.1068/b3022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chen, A., Subprasom, K., & Ji, Z. (2006). A simulation-based multi-objective genetic algorithm (SMOGA) for BOT network design problem. Optimization and Engineering, 7(3), 225–247. doi:10.1007/s11081-006-9970-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chen, A., & Subprasom, K. (2007). Analysis of regulation and policy of private toll roads in a build-operate-transfer scheme under demand uncertainty. Transportation Research Part A, 41(6), 537–558.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chin, A. T. H. (1996). Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore. Atmospheric Environment, 30(5), 787–801. doi:10.1016/1352-2310(95)00173-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chiou, S.-W. (2005). Bilevel programming for the continuous transport network design problem. Transportation Research Part B, 39(4), 361–383.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chiou, S.-W. (2007). A globally convergent iterative scheme for toll design network with signal settings. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 187(2), 1086–1099. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2006.09.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chiou, S.-W. (2008). Optimization of congestion pricing road network with variable demands. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 195(2), 382–391. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2007.04.099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chow, A. H. F. (2007). Toward a general framework for dynamic road pricing. In B. Heydecker (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th IMA international conference on mathematics in transport (pp. 245–257). Elsevier.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chu, X. (1999). Alternative congestion pricing schedules. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 29(6), 697–722. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(99)00021-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chu, C.-P., & Tsai, J.-F. (2004). Road pricing models with maintenance cost. Transportation, 31(4), 457–477. doi:10.1023/B:PORT.0000037059.61327.13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chu, C.-P., & Tsai, J.-F. (2008). The optimal location and road pricing for an elevated road in a corridor. Transportation Research Part A, 42(5), 842–856.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Churchill, A., Huber, K., Meldau, E., & Walters, A. (1972). Road user charges in Central America. World Bank Staff Occasional Papers, 15. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Clegg, J., Smith, M., Xiang, Y., & Yarrow, R. (2001). Bilevel programming applied to optimising urban transportation. Transportation Research Part B, 35(1), 41–70. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(00)00018-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Coelho, M. C., Farias, T. L., & Rouphail, N. M. (2005). Measuring and modeling emission effects for toll facilities. Transportation Research Record, 1941, 136–144. doi:10.3141/1941-17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Correa, J. R., Schulz, A. S., & Stier-Moses, N. E. (2004). Selfish routing in capacitated networks. Mathematics of Operations Research, 29(4), 961–976. doi:10.1287/moor.1040.0098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dafermos, S. C., & Sparrow, F. T. (1971). Optimal resource allocation and toll patterns in user-optimized transport networks. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 5(2), 184–200.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dafermos, S. C. (1973). Toll patterns for multiclass-user transportation networks. Transportation Science, 7, 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Daganzo, C. F., & Sheffi, Y. (1977). On stochastic models of traffic assignment. Transportation Science, 11(3), 253–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Daganzo, C. (1995). A Pareto optimum congestion reduction scheme. Transportation Research Part B, 29(2), 139–154. doi:10.1016/0191-2615(94)00031-T.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Daganzo, C. F., & Garcia, R. (2000). A Pareto improving strategy for the time-dependent morning commute problem. Transportation Science, 34(3), 303–312. doi:10.1287/trsc.34.3.303.12296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Danielis, R., & Marcucci, E. (2002). Bottleneck road congestion pricing with a competing railroad service. Transportation Research Part E, 38(5), 379–388. doi:10.1016/S1366-5545(01)00021-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dawson, J. A. L., & Catling, I. (1986). Electronic road pricing in Hong Kong. Transportation Research Part A, 20(2), 129–134. doi:10.1016/0191-2607(86)90039-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    De Borger, B., & Wouters, S. (1998). Transport externalities and optimal pricing and supply decisions in urban transportation: A simulation analysis for Belgium. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 28(2), 163–197. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(97)00018-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    De Borger, B., & Swysen, D. (1999). Public transport subsidies versus road pricing: An empirical analysis for interregional transport in Belgium. International Journal of Transport Economics, 26(1), 55–89.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    De Borger, B., & Van Dender, K. (2003). Transport tax reform, commuting, and endogenous values of time. Journal of Urban Economics, 53(3), 510–530. doi:10.1016/S0094-1190(03)00024-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    De Borger, B., & Van Dender, K. (2006). Prices, capacities and service levels in a congestible Bertrand duopoly. Journal of Urban Economics, 60(2), 264–283. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2006.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    De Borger, B., Proost, S., & Van Dender, K. (2007a). Private port pricing and public investment in port and hinterland capacity. Research Paper 2007-019, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Belgium (available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1024691).
  91. 91.
    De Borger, B., Dunkerley, F., & Proost, S. (2007b). Strategic investment and pricing decisions in a congested transport corridor. Journal of Urban Economics, 62(2), 294–316. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2007.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    De Borger, B., Dunkerley, F., & Proost, S. (2008). The interaction between tolls and capacity investment in serial and parallel transport networks. The Review of Network Economics, 7(1), 136–158.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    De Palma, A., & Lindsey, R. (2000). Private toll roads: Competition under various ownership regimes. The Annals of Regional Science, 34(1), 13–35. doi:10.1007/s001680050124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    De Palma, A., & Lindsey, R. (2002). Private roads, competition, and incentives to adopt time-based congestion tolling. Journal of Urban Economics, 52(2), 217–241. doi:10.1016/S0094-1190(02)00002-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    De Palma, A., Lindsey, R., & Quinet, E. (2004). Time-varying road pricing and choice of toll locations. In G. Santos (Ed.), Road pricing: Theory and evidence, research in transportation economics (Vol. 9, pp. 107–131). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    De Palma, A., Kilani, M., & Lindsey, R. (2005a). Congestion pricing on a road network: A study using the dynamic equilibrium simulator METROPOLIS. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 588–611.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    De Palma, A., Kilani, M., & Lindsey, R. (2005b). A comparison of second-best and third-best tolling schemes on a road network. Transportation Research Record, 1932, 89–96. doi:10.3141/1932-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    De Palma, A., & Proost, S. (2006). Imperfect competition and congestion in the City. Journal of Urban Economics, 60(2), 185–209. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2005.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    De Palma, A., Lindsey, R., & Proost, S. (2006a). Research challenges in modelling urban road pricing: An overview. Transport Policy, 13(2), 97–105. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    De Palma, A., Lindsey, R., & Niskanen, E. (2006b). Policy insights from the urban road pricing case studies. Transport Policy, 13(2), 149–161. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.11.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    De Palma, A., Lindsey, R., & Proost, S. (Eds.) (2007a). Investment and the use of tax and toll revenues in the transport sector. Research in Transportation Economics, 19. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    De Palma, A., Kilani, M., & Lindsey, R. (2007b). Maintenance, service quality and congestion pricing with competing roads. Transportation Research Part B, 41(5), 573–591. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2006.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    De Rus, G., & Romero, M. (2004). Private financing of roads and optimal pricing: Is it possible to get both? The Annals of Regional Science, 38, 485–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    DeCorla-Souza, P. (2002). Estimating benefits from mileage-based vehicle insurance, taxes, and fees. Transportation Research Record, 1812, 171–178. doi:10.3141/1812-21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    DeCorla-Souza, P. (2004). Recent U.S. experience: Pilot projects. In G. Santos (Ed.), Road pricing: Theory and evidence, research in transportation economics (Vol. 9, pp. 283–308). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    DeCorla-Souza, P. (2006). FAST Miles: Benefits and financial feasibility of multimodal investment and pricing strategy. Transportation Research Record, 1960, 152–158. doi:10.3141/1960-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Dial, R. B. (1999a). Minimal-revenue congestion pricing. Part I: A fast algorithm for the single-origin case. Transportation Research Part B, 33(3), 189–202. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(98)00026-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Dial, R. B. (1999b). Network-optimized road pricing: Part I: A parable and a model. Operations Research, 47(1), 54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dial, R. B. (1999c). Network-optimized road pricing: Part II: Algorithms and examples. Operations Research, 47(2), 327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dial, R. B. (2000). Minimal-revenue congestion pricing. Part II: An efficient algorithm for the general case. Transportation Research Part B, 34(8), 645–665. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(99)00046-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Dimitriou, L., Tsekeris, T., & Stathopoulos, A. (2007). Evolutionary combinatorial programming for discrete road network design with reliability requirements. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4448, 678–687. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71805-5_74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Dimitriou, L., & Tsekeris, T. (2008). Evolutionary game-theoretic model for dynamic congestion pricing in multi-class traffic networks. NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking (this issue).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Dimitriou, L., Tsekeris, T., & Stathopoulos, A. (2008). Joint pricing and design of urban highways with spatial and user group heterogeneity. NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking (this issue).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Dong, J., Erdogan, S., Lu, C.-C., & Mahmassani, H. S. (2007). State-dependent pricing for real-time freeway management: Static, reactive and anticipatory. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 86th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    D’Ouville, E. L., & McDonald, J. F. (1990a). Optimal road capacity with a suboptimal congestion toll. Journal of Urban Economics, 28(1), 34–49. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(90)90040-T.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    D’Ouville, E. L., & McDonald, J. F. (1990b). Effects of demand uncertainty on optimal capacity and congestion tolls for urban highways. Journal of Urban Economics, 28(1), 63–70. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(90)90042-L.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ekström, J., Engelson, L., & Rydergren, C. (2008). Heuristic algorithms for a second-best congestion pricing problem. NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking (this issue).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Eliasson, J. (2001). Road pricing with limited information and heterogeneous users: A successful case. The Annals of Regional Science, 35(4), 595–604. doi:10.1007/s001680100061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Eliasson, J., & Mattsson, L.-G. (2001). Transport and location effects of road pricing: A simulation approach. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 35(3), 417–456.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Eliasson, J., & Mattsson, L.-G. (2006). Equity effects of congestion pricing: Quantitative methodology and a case study for Stockholm. Transportation Research Part A, 40(7), 602–620.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Engel, E., Fisher, R., & Galetovic, A. (2004). Toll competition among congested roads. Topics in Economic Analysis and Policy, 4(1), 1246.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Erhardt, G. D., Koppelman, F. S., Freedman, J., Davidson, W. A., & Mullins, A. (2003). Modeling the choice to use toll and high-occupancy vehicle facilities. Transportation Research Record, 1854, 135–143. doi:10.3141/1854-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ettema, D., Ashiru, O., & Polak, J. W. (2004). Modeling timing and duration of activities and trips in response to road-pricing policies. Transportation Research Record, 1894, 1–10. doi:10.3141/1894-01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ferrari, P. (1995). Road pricing and network equilibrium. Transportation Research Part B, 29(5), 357–372. doi:10.1016/0191-2615(95)00013-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ferrari, P. (2002). Road network toll pricing and social welfare. Transportation Research Part B, 36(5), 471–483. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(01)00016-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ferrari, P. (2005). Road pricing and users’ surplus. Transport Policy, 12(6), 477–487. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.02.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Forkenbrock, D. J. (1999). External costs of intercity truck freight transportation. Transportation Research Part A, 33(7–8), 505–526.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Forkenbrock, D. J. (2006). Financing local roads: Current problems and new paradigm. Transportation Research Record, 1960, 8–14. doi:10.3141/1960-02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Franklin, J. P. (2006). The equity effects of roadway tolls: An application of Hicksian welfare measures with income effects. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on travel behaviour research, Kyoto Japan.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Franklin, J. P. (2008). Nonparametric distributional analysis of a transportation policy: Stockholm’s congestion pricing trial. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Friesz, T. L. (1985). Transportation network equilibrium, design and aggregation: Key developments. Transport Reviews, 18(3), 257–278.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Friesz, T. L., Bernstein, D., & Kydes, N. (2004). Dynamic congestion pricing in disequilibrium. Networks and Spatial Ecomonics, 4(2), 181–202.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gakenheimer, R. (1999). Urban mobility in the developing world. Transportation Research Part A, 33(7–8), 671–689.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Gardner, L., Unnikrishnan, A., & Waller, S. T. (2008). Robust pricing of transportation networks under uncertain demand. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Gentile, G., Papola, N., & Persia, L. (2005). Advanced pricing and rationing policies for large scale multimodal networks. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 612–631.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gentili, M., & Mirchandani, P. B. (2005). Location of active sensors on a traffic network. Annals of Operations Research, 136(1), 229–257. doi:10.1007/s10479-005-2047-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gibbons, E., & O’Mahony, M. (2002). External cost internalisation of urban transport: A case study of Dublin. Journal of Environmental Management, 64(4), 401–410. doi:10.1006/jema.2001.0516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gillen, D. W. (1977). Estimation and specification of the effects of parking costs on urban transport mode choice. Journal of Urban Economics, 4(2), 186–199. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(77)90022-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Glaister, S., & Graham, D. J. (2005). An evaluation of national road user charging in England. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 632–650.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Glazer, A. (1999). Time consistency of congestion tolls. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 34(3), 301–309.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Glazer, A., & Niskanen, E. (2000). Which consumers benefit from congestion tolls? Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 34(1), 43–54.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Goh, M. (2002). Congestion management and electronic road pricing in Singapore. Journal of Transport Geography, 10(1), 29–38. doi:10.1016/S0966-6923(01)00036-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Golob, T. F. (2001). Joint models of attitudes and behavior in evaluation of the San Diego I-15 congestion pricing project. Transportation Research Part A, 35(6), 495–514.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Goodwin, P. (2004). Congestion charging in Central London: Lessons learned. Planning Theory & Practice, 5(4), 501–505. doi:10.1080/1464935042000293242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gronau, R. (1994a). Fuel taxes and road-user charges in LDCs: Some lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 28(3), 255–273.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Gronau, R. (1994b). Optimal road capacity with a suboptimal congestion toll. Journal of Urban Economics, 36(1), 1–7. doi:10.1006/juec.1994.1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Guo, R., & Huang, H. (2007). Joint optimization model of road-use pricing and capacity using the optimal control theory. Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology, 7(6), 61–66. doi:10.1016/S1570-6672(08)60003-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Haltmaier, S. (1997). Transport subsidies: U.S. case study. In Reforming energy and transport subsidies: Environmental and economic implications. OECD, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hamdouch, Y., Florian, M., Hearn, D. W., & Lawphongpanich, S. (2007). Congestion pricing for multi-modal transportation systems. Transportation Research Part B, 41(3), 275–291. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2006.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hammar, H. (2007). Will a kilometre tax in Sweden affect its sawmill industry? A note. Transportation Research Part D, 12(7), 519–522. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2007.05.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Han, D., & Yang, H. (2008). The multi-class, multi-criterion traffic equilibrium and the efficiency of congestion pricing. Transportation Research Part E, 44(5), 753–773. doi:10.1016/j.tre.2007.07.011.
  152. 152.
    Harrison, W. J., Pell, C., Jones, P. M., & Ashton, H. (1986). Some advances in model design developed for the practical assessment of road pricing in Hong Kong. Transportation Research Part A, 20(2), 135–143. doi:10.1016/0191-2607(86)90040-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hau, T. D. (1990). Electronic road pricing: Developments in Hong Kong 1983–89. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 24(2), 203–214.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hau, T. D. (1998). Congestion pricing and road investment. In K. J. Button & E. T. Verhoef (Eds.), Road pricing, traffic congestion and the environment (pp. 39–78). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hau, T. D. (2005a). Economic fundamentals of road pricing: A diagrammatic analysis, Part I: Fundamentals. Transportmetrica, 1(2), 81–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Hau, T. D. (2005b). Economic fundamentals of road pricing: A diagrammatic analysis, Part II: Relaxation of assumptions. Transportmetrica, 1(2), 119–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    He, L., & Walrand, J. (2006). Pricing and revenue sharing strategies for internet service providers. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 24(5), 942–951. doi:10.1109/JSAC.2006.872875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hearn, D. W., & Ramana, M. V. (1998). Solving congestion toll pricing models. In P. Marcotte & S. Nguyen (Eds.), Equilibrium and advanced transportation modeling (pp. 109–124). Boston: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hearn, D. W., & Yildirim, M. B. (2002). A toll pricing framework for traffic assignment problems with elastic demand. In M. Gendreau & P. Marcotte (Eds.), Transportation and network analysis: Current trends (pp. 135–145). Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hensher, D. A., & Puckett, S. M. (2005). Road user charging: The global relevance of recent developments in the United Kingdom. Transport Policy, 12(5), 377–383. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hensher, D. A., & Puckett, S. M. (2008). Assessing the influence of distance-based charges on freight transporters. Transport Reviews, 28(1), 1–19. doi:10.1080/01441640701345850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hess, S., Smith, C., Falzarano, S., & Stubits, J. (2008). Measuring the effects of different experimental designs and survey administration methods using an Atlanta Managed Lanes stated preference survey. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hills, P. (1984). Hong Kong’s roads: Clearing the chaos. Cities (London, England), 1(3), 234–242. doi:10.1016/0264-2751(84)90097-0.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ho, H. W., Wong, S. C., Yang, H., & Loo, B. P. Y. (2005). Cordon-based congestion pricing in a continuum traffic equilibrium system. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 813–834.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Holguín-Veras, J., Sackey, D., Hussain, S., & Ochieng, V. (2003). Economic and financial feasibility of truck toll lanes. Transportation Research Record, 1833, 66–72. doi:10.3141/1833-09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Holguín-Veras, J., Cetin, M., & Xia, S. (2006). A comparative analysis of US toll policy. Transportation Research Part A, 40(10), 852–871.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Holguín-Veras, J. (2008). Necessary conditions for off-hour deliveries and the effectiveness of urban freight road pricing and alternative financial policies in competitive markets. Transportation Research Part A, 42(2), 392–413.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Huang, H.-J., & Yang, H. (1996). Optimal variable road-use pricing on a congested network of parallel routes with elastic demand. In J. B. Lesort (Ed.), Proceedings of the 13th international symposium on transportation and traffic theory (pp. 479–500). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Huang, H.-J. (2000). Fares and tolls in a competitive system with transit and highway: The case with two groups of commuters. Transportation Research Part E, 36(4), 267–284. doi:10.1016/S1366-5545(00)00002-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Huang, H.-J. (2002). Pricing and logit-based mode choice models of a transit and highway system with elastic demand. European Journal of Operational Research, 140(3), 562–570. doi:10.1016/S0377-2217(01)00228-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hyman, G., & Mayhew, L. (2002). Optimizing the benefits of urban road user charging. Transport Policy, 9(3), 189–207. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00012-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ieromonachou, P., Potter, S., & Warren, J. P. (2006). Norway’s urban toll rings: Evolving towards congestion charging? Transport Policy, 13(5), 367–378. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2006.01.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Ieromonachou, P., Potter, S., & Warren, J. P. (2007). Strategic niche analysis of urban road pricing in the UK and Norway. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 7(1), 15–38.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Ison, S. (1998). A concept in the right place at the wrong time: Congestion metering in the city of Cambridge. Transport Policy, 5(3), 139–146. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(98)00017-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    ITS United Kingdom (2007). White paper: Technology options for road user charging in the UK. London, UK: ITS United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Jensen-Butler, C., Sloth, B., Larsen, M. M., Madsen, B., & Nielsen, O. A. (Eds.) (2008). Road pricing, the economy and the environment. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Johansen, F. (1989). Toll road characteristics and toll road experience in selected South East Asia countries. Transportation Research Part A, 23(6), 463–466. doi:10.1016/0191-2607(89)90067-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Johansson-Stenman, O. (2006). Optimal environmental road pricing. Economics Letters, 90(2), 225–229. doi:10.1016/j.econlet.2005.08.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Johnson, T., & Savage, I. (2006). Departure delays, the pricing of congestion, and expansion proposals at Chicago O’Hare Airport. Journal of Air Transport Management, 12(4), 182–190. doi:10.1016/j.jairtraman.2006.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Joksimovic, D., Bliemer, M. C. J., & Bovy, P. H. L. (2005a). Optimal toll design problem in dynamic traffic networks with joint route and departure time choice. Transportation Research Record, 1923, 61–72. doi:10.3141/1923-07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Joksimovic, D., Bliemer, M. C. J., Bovy, P. H. L., & Verwater-Lukszo, Z. (2005b). Dynamic road pricing for optimizing network performance with heterogeneous users. In IEEE proceedings of the international conference in networking, sensing and control (pp. 407–412). Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Joumard, R., Lamure, C., Lambert, J., & Tripiana, F. (1996). Air quality and urban space management. The Science of the Total Environment, 189–190, 57–67. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(96)05191-1.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Jovicic, G., & Hansen, C. O. (2003). A passenger travel demand model for Copenhagen. Transportation Research Part A, 37(4), 333–349.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kalmanje, S., & Kockelman, K. M. (2004). Credit-based congestion pricing: Travel, land value, and welfare impacts. Transportation Research Record, 1864, 45–53. doi:10.3141/1864-07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Kanemoto, Y. (1980). Theories of urban externalities. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Karoonsoontawong, A., Ukkusuri, S. V., Waller, S. T., & Kockelman, K. M. (2008). Simulation-based heuristic approach for dynamic marginal cost pricing. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Katerelos, I. D., & Koulouris, A. G. (2004). Is prediction possible? Chaotic behavior of multiple equilibria regulation model in cellular automata topology. Complexity, 10(1), 23–36. doi:10.1002/cplx.20052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Keeler, T. E., & Small, K. A. (1977). Optimal peak-load pricing, investment and service levels on urban expressways. The Journal of Political Economy, 85(1), 1–25. doi:10.1086/260543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Khazzoom, D. J. (1991). The impact of a gasoline tax on auto exhaust emissions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 10(3), 434–454. doi:10.2307/3325325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Kim, K. S., & Hwang, K. (2005). An application of road pricing schemes to urban expressways in Seoul. Cities (London, England), 22(1), 43–53. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2004.10.005.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Kim, D., & Schonfeld, P. M. (2008). Road network design with road space allocation and toll funding. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Knight, F. (1924). Some fallacies in the interpretation of social cost. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 38(4), 582–606. doi:10.2307/1884592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kobayashi, K., & Do, M. (2005). The informational impacts of congestion tolls upon route traffic demands. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 651–670.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kockelman, K. M., & Kalmanje, S. (2005). Credit-based congestion pricing: A policy proposal and the public’s response. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 671–690.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Köhler, J., Jin, Y., & Barker, T. (2008). Integrated modelling of EU transport policy: Assessing economic growth impacts from social marginal cost pricing and infrastructure investment. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 42(1), 1–21.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Koopman, G. J. (1997). Long-term challenges for inland transport in the European Union: 1997–2010: Consequences for transport fuel economy and use. Energy Policy, 25(14–15), 1151–1161. doi:10.1016/S0301-4215(97)00107-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Koutsoupias, E., & Papadimitriou, C. H. (1999). Worst-case equilibria. In Proceedings of the 16th annual symposium on theoretical aspects of computer science (pp. 404–413). Trier, Germany.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kraus, M. (1982). Highway pricing and capacity choice under uncertain demand. Journal of Urban Economics, 12(1), 122–128. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(82)90009-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kraus, M. (1989). The welfare gains from pricing road congestion using automatic vehicle identification and on-vehicle meters. Journal of Urban Economics, 25(3), 261–281. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(89)90050-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kunchornrat, J., Pairintra, R., & Namprakai, P. (2008). Sustainable energy management in urban transport: The public’s response of road congestion pricing in Thailand. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(8), 2211–2226. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2007.04.014.
  201. 201.
    Kuwahara, M. (2007). A theory and implications on dynamic marginal cost. Transportation Research Part A, 41(7), 627–643.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Laffont, J.-J., & Tirole, J. (1994). Access pricing and competition. European Economic Review, 38(9), 1673–1710. doi:10.1016/0014-2921(94)90046-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Laih, C.-H. (1994). Queueing at a bottleneck with single- and multi-step tolls. Transportation Research Part A, 28(3), 197–208. doi:10.1016/0191-2615(94)90007-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Lam, W. H. K. (1989). Optimization of transport investment and pricing policies: The role of transport pricing in network design. Transportation Planning and Technology, 13(4), 245–258. doi:10.1080/03081068908717404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Lam, T. (2004). Evaluating value-pricing projects with both scheduling and route choices. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 34(2), 225–240. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(03)00025-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Langmyhr, T. (1997). Managing equity. The case of road pricing. Transport Policy, 4(1), 25–39. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(96)00031-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Larsen, O. I., & Ostmoe, K. (2001). The experience of urban toll cordons in Norway. Lessons for the future. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 35(3), 457–471.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Larsson, T., & Patriksson, M. (1998). Side constrained traffic equilibrium models – traffic management through link tolls. In P. Marcotte & S. Nguyen (Eds.), Equilibrium and advanced transportation modeling (pp. 125–151). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Lawphongpanich, S., Hearn, D. W., & Smith, M. J. (Eds.) (2006). Mathematical and computational models for congestion charging. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Layard, R. (1977). The distributional effects of congestion taxes. Economica, 44(175), 297–304. doi:10.2307/2553654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Leape, J. (2006). The London congestion charge. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(4), 157–176. doi:10.1257/jep.20.4.157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Lee, K.-S., & Hobeika, A. G. (2007). Application of dynamic value pricing through enhancements to TRANSIMS. Transportation Research Record, 2003, 7–16. doi:10.3141/2003-02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Levine, J., & Garb, Y. (2002). Congestion pricing’s conditional promise: Promotion of accessibility or mobility? Transport Policy, 9(3), 179–188. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00007-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Levinson, D. (1998). Case study: Road pricing in practice. In K. J. Button & E. T. Verhoef (Eds.), Road pricing, traffic congestion and the environment: Issues in efficiency and social feasibility (pp. 14–39). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Levinson, D. (2002). Financing transportation networks. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Levinson, D., & Rafferty, P. (2004). Delayer pays principle: Examining congestion pricing with compensation. International Journal of Transport Economics, 31(3), 295–311.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Levinson, D., & Odlyzko, A. (2008). Too expensive to meter: The influence of transaction costs in transportation and communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 366(1872), 2033–2046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Li, M. Z. F. (1999). Estimating congestion toll by using traffic count data—Singapore’s area licensing scheme. Transportation Research Part E, 35(1), 1–10. doi:10.1016/S1366-5545(98)00019-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Li, M. Z. F. (2002). The role of speed–flow relationship in congestion pricing implementation with an application to Singapore. Transportation Research Part B, 36(8), 731–754. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(01)00026-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Li, J., Gillen, D., & Dahlgren, J. (1999). Benefit–cost evaluation of the electronic toll collection system: A comprehensive framework and application. Transportation Research Record, 1659, 31–38. doi:10.3141/1659-04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Li, H., Bliemer, M. C. J., & Bovy, P. H. L. (2007a). Optimal toll design from reliability perspective. In Proceedings of the 6th triennial symposium on transportation analysis. Phuket, Thailand.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Li, Z. C., Huang, H. J., Lam, W. H. K., & Wong, S. C. (2007b). Time-differential pricing of road tolls and parking charges in a transport network with elastic demand. In R. E. Allsop, M. G. H. Bell, B. G. Heydecker (Eds.), Proceedings of the 17th international symposium on transportation and traffic theory (pp. 55–85). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Li, X., Szeto, W. Y., & O’Mahony, M. (2007c). Incorporating land use, transport and environmental considerations into time-dependent tolling strategies. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 7, 360–375.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Lian, J. I. (2007). The Oslo and Bergen toll rings and road-building investment—effect on traffic development and congestion. Journal of Transport Geography, 16(3), 174–181. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo. 2007.08.004.
  225. 225.
    Lim, C. C. (1997). The status of transportation demand management in Greater Vancouver and energy implications. Energy Policy, 25(14–15), 1193–1202. doi:10.1016/S0301-4215(97)00114-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Lindsey, R. (2005). Recent developments and current policy issues in road pricing in the US and Canada. European Transport, 31, 46–66.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Link, H. (2008). Acceptability of the German charging scheme for heavy goods vehicles: Empirical evidence from a freight company survey. Transport Reviews, 28(2), 141–158. doi:10.1080/01441640701474809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Litman, T. (1997). Full cost accounting of urban transportation: Implications and tools. Cities (London, England), 14(3), 169–174. doi:10.1016/S0264-2751(97)00057-7.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Littlechild, S. C. (1973). Myopic investment rules and toll charges in a transport network. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 7(2), 194–203.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Liu, L. N. (1996). Multi-period congestion pricing models and efficient tolls in urban road systems. The Review of Network Economics, 3(4), 381–391.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Liu, L. N., & McDonald, J. F. (1999). Economic efficiency of second-best congestion pricing schemes in urban highway systems. Transportation Research Part B, 33(3), 157–188. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(98)00025-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Liu, L. N., & Boyce, D. E. (2002). Variational inequality formulation of the system-optimal travel choice problem and efficient congestion tolls for a general transportation network with multiple time periods. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 32(5), 627–650. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(01)00095-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Liu, Y., Guo, X., & Yang, H. (2008). Pareto-improving and revenue-neutral congestion pricing schemes in two-mode traffic networks. NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking (this issue).Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Lo, H. K., & Szeto, W. Y. (2005). Road pricing modeling for hyper-congestion. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 705–722.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Lu, C.-C., Mahmassani, H. S., & Zhou, X. (2007). A bi-criterion dynamic user equilibrium traffic assignment model and solution algorithm for evaluating dynamic road pricing strategies. Transportation Research Part C, 16(4), 371–389. doi:10.1016/j.trc.2007.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Luo, Q., Juan, Z., Sun, B., & Jia, H. (2007). Method research on measuring the external costs of urban traffic congestion. Journal of Transportation Systems. Engineering and Information Technology, 7(5), 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Madsen, B., Jensen-Butler, C., Kronbak, J., & Leleur, S. (2008). A systems approach to modelling the regional economic effects of road pricing. In C. Jensen-Butler, B. Sloth, M. M. Larsen, B. Madsen, & O. A. Nielsen (Eds.), Road pricing, the economy and the environment (pp. 229–265). Berlin–Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Magnanti, T. L., & Wong, R. T. (1984). Network design and transportation planning: Models and algorithms. Transportation Science, 18(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Malko, J. R., & Swensen, P. R. (2008). Some lessons learned: Electricity costing and pricing. The Electricity Journal, 21(1), 82–89. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2007.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Markose, S., Alentorn, A., Koesrindartoto, D., Allen, P., Blythe, P., & Grosso, S. (2007). A smart market for passenger road transport (SMPRT) congestion: An application of computational mechanism design. Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control, 31(6), 2001–2032. doi:10.1016/j.jedc.2007.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Maruyama, T., & Sumalee, A. (2007). Efficiency and equity comparison of cordon- and area-based road pricing schemes using a trip-chain equilibrium model. Transportation Research Part A, 41(7), 655–671.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Massiani, J., & Ragazzi, G. (2008). Costs and efficiency of highway concessionaires: A survey of Italian operators. European Tranport, 38, 85–106.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Matsuda, W., Tsukada, Y., & Kikuchi, M. (2005). Flexible charge measures used on toll roads: An analysis of demonstration projects in Japan. Transportation Research Record, 1932, 137–146. doi:10.3141/1932-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Mattsson, L.-G. (2008). Road pricing: Consequences for traffic, congestion and location. In C. Jensen-Butler, B. Sloth, M. M. Larsen, B. Madsen, & O. A. Nielsen (Eds.), Road pricing, the economy and the environment (pp. 29–48). Berlin–Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    May, A. D., & Milne, D. S. (2000). Effects of alternative road pricing systems on network performance. Transportation Research Part A, 34(6), 407–436.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    May, A. D., Shepherd, S. P., Minken, H., Markussen, T., Emberger, G., & Pfaffenbichler, P. (2001). The use of response surfaces in specifying transport strategies. Transport Policy, 8(4), 267–278. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(01)00021-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    May, A. D., Liu, R., Shepherd, S. P., & Sumalee, A. (2002). The impact of cordon design on the performance of road pricing schemes. Transport Policy, 9(3), 209–220. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00031-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Mayet, J., & Hansen, M. (1999). Congestion pricing with continuously distributed values of time. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 34(3), 359–369.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Mcdonald, J. F. (2004). Road pricing in practice and theory. The Review of Network Economics, 3(4), 347–355.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    McKinnon, A. C. (2006). Government plans for lorry road-user charging in the UK: A critique and an alternative. Transport Policy, 13(3), 204–216. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Meng, Q., & Wang, X. (2008). Sensitivity analysis of logit-based stochastic user equilibrium network flows with entry-exit toll schemes. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 23(2), 138–156.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Milchtaich, I. (1996). Congestion games with player-specific payoff functions. Games and Economic Behavior, 13(1), 111–124. doi:10.1006/game.1996.0027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Mills, G. (1995). Welfare and profit divergence for a tolled link in a road network. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 29, 137–146.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Mitchell, G. (2005). Forecasting environmental equity: Air quality responses to road user charging in Leeds, UK. Journal of Environmental Management, 77(3), 212–226. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.04.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Mohring, H., & Harwitz, M. (1962). Highway benefits: An analytical framework. Evanston IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Moon, D.-J., & Park, C.-H. (2002). Optimal congestion charges in general equilibrium. IATSS Research, 26(1), 45–57.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Morrison, S. A. (1986). A survey of road pricing. Transportation Research Part A, 20(2), 87–97. doi:10.1016/0191-2607(86)90035-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Mun, S.-I. (1999). Peak-load pricing of a bottleneck with traffic jam. Journal of Urban Economics, 46(3), 323–349. doi:10.1006/juec.1998.2125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Mun, S.-I., Konishi, K., & Yoshikawa, K. (2003). Optimal cordon pricing. Journal of Urban Economics, 54(1), 21–38. doi:10.1016/S0094-1190(03)00022-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Mun, S.-I., Konishi, K.-J., & Yoshikawa, K. (2005). Optimal cordon pricing in a non-monocentric city. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 723–736.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Munk, K. J. (2008). Evaluation of the introduction of road pricing using a computable general equilibrium model. In C. Jensen-Butler, B. Sloth, M. M. Larsen, B. Madsen, & O. A. Nielsen (Eds.), Road pricing, the economy and the environment (pp. 167–191). Berlin–Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Murray, P. M., Mahmassani, H. S., & Abdelghany, K. F. (2001). Methodology for assessing High-Occupancy Toll-lane usage and network performance. Transportation Research Record, 1765, 8–15. doi:10.3141/1765-02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Nagae, T., & Akamatsu, T. (2006). Dynamic revenue management of a toll road project under transportation demand uncertainty. Networks and Spatial Economics, 6(3–4), 345–357. doi:10.1007/s11067-9288-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Nagurney, A. (1993). Network economics: A variational inequality approach. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Nakamura, K., & Kockelman, K. (2002). Congestion pricing and roadspace rationing: An application to the San Francisco Bay Bridge corridor. Transportation Research Part A, 36(5), 403–417.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Nash, C., Sansom, T., & Still, B. (2001). Modifying transport prices to internalise externalities: Evidence from European case studies. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 31(4), 413–431. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(01)00059-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Newbery, D. M. (1988). Road damage externalities and road user charges. Econometrica, 56(1), 295–316. doi:10.2307/1911073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Newbery, D. M. (1990). Pricing and congestion: Economic principles relevant to pricing roads. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 6(2), 22–38. doi:10.1093/oxrep/6.2.22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Nicolini-Llosa, J. L. (2002). Toll road concessions in Argentina: What can be learned. Transportation Research Record, 1812, 10–21. doi:10.3141/1812-02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Nielsen, O. A. (2004). Behavioral responses to road pricing schemes: Description of the Danish AKTA experiment. Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 8(4), 233–251.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Noland, R. B., Quddus, M. A., & Ochieng, W. Y. (2008). The effect of the London congestion charge on road casualties: An intervention analysis. Transportation, 35(1), 73–91. doi:10.1007/s11116-007-9133-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Oberholzer-Gee, F., & Weck-Hannemann, H. (2002). Pricing road use: Politico-economic and fairness considerations. Transportation Research Part D, 7(5), 357–371. doi:10.1016/S1361-9209(02)00005-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Odeck, J. (2008). How efficient and productive are road toll companies? Evidence from Norway. Transport Policy, 15(4), 232–241.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Odeck, J., & Brathen, S. (2002). Toll financing in Norway: The success, the failures and perspectives for the future. Transport Policy, 9(3), 253–260. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00030-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Odlyzko, A. (2004). The evolution of price discrimination in transportation and its implications for the internet. Review of Network Economics, 3(3), 323–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    OECD (1991). Utility pricing and access: Competition for monopolies. Paris, France: International Energy Agency, OECD.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Oh, J. E., Labi, S., & Sinha, K. C. (2007). Implementation and evaluation of self-financing highway pricing schemes: A case study. Transportation Research Record, 1996, 25–33. doi:10.3141/1996-04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Olszewski, P., & Xie, L. (2005). Modelling the effects of road pricing on traffic in Singapore. Transportation Research Part A, 39(7–9), 755–772.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Otterström, T. (1995). Pricing of environmental impacts of emissions from road traffic—recent and present research in Finland. The Science of the Total Environment, 169(1–3), 311–319. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(95)04663-L.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Ozbay, K., Yanmaz-Tuzel, O., & Holguín-Veras, J. (2006). Evaluation of combined traffic impacts of time-of-day pricing program and E-ZPass usage on New Jersey Turnpike. Transportation Research Record, 1960, 40–47. doi:10.3141/1960-06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Parry, I. W. H., & Bento, A. (2001). Revenue recycling and the welfare effects of road pricing. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 103(4), 645–671. doi:10.1111/1467-9442.00264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Parry, I. W. H., Walls, M., & Harrington, W. (2007). Automobile externalities and policies. Journal of Economic Literature, 45(1), 373–399. doi:10.1257/jel.45.2.373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Peeta, S., & Ziliaskopoulos, A. K. (2001). Foundations of dynamic traffic assignment: The past, the present and the future. Networks and Spatial Economics, 1(3–4), 233–265. doi:10.1023/A:1012827724856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Pels, E., & Verhoef, E. T. (2007). Infrastructure pricing and competition between modes in urban transport. Environment & Planning A, 39(9), 2119–2138. doi:10.1068/a38425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Penchina, C. M. (2004). Minimal-revenue congestion pricing: Some more good-news and bad-news. Transportation Research Part B, 38(6), 559–570. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2003.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Perakis, G. (2007). The price of anarchy under nonlinear and asymmetric costs. Mathematics of Operations Research, 32(3), 614–628. doi:10.1287/moor.1070.0258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Phang, S.-Y., & Toh, R. S. (1997). From manual to electronic road congestion pricing: The Singapore experience and experiment. Transportation Research Part E, 33(2), 97–106. doi:10.1016/S1366-5545(97)00006-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Pickford, A. T. W., & Blythe, P. T. (2006). Road user charging and electronic toll collection. London: Artech House.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Pigou, A. C. (1920). The economics of welfare. London, UK: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Pretty, R. L. (1988). Road pricing: A solution for Hong Kong? Transportation Research Part A, 22(5), 319–327. doi:10.1016/0191-2607(88)90010-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Proost, S., & Van Dender, K. (2001). The welfare impacts of alternative policies to address atmospheric pollution in urban road transport. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 31(4), 383–411. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(00)00079-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Proost, S., Van Dender, K., Courcelle, C., De Borger, B., Peirson, J., Sharp, D., et al. (2002). How large is the gap between present and efficient transport prices in Europe? Transport Policy, 9(1), 41–57. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(01)00029-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Proost, S., & Van Dender, K. (2008). Optimal urban transport pricing in the presence of congestion, economies of density and costly public funds. Transportation Research Part A. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2008.03.009.
  294. 294.
    Prud’homme, R., & Bocajero, J. P. (2005). The London congestion charge: A tentative economic appraisal. Transport Policy, 12(3), 279–287. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Quddus, M. A., Bell, M. G. H., Schmöcker, J.-D., & Fonzone, A. (2007). The impact of the congestion charge on the retail busuness in London: An econometric analysis. Transport Policy, 14(5), 433–444.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Rajé, F. (2003). The impact of transport on social exclusion processes with specific emphasis on road user charging. Transport Policy, 10(4), 321–338. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(03)00038-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Raux, C., Mercier, A., & Souche, S. (2007). French multi-modal transport funds: Issues of cross-financing and pricing. In A. de Palma, R. Lindsey, & S. Proost (Eds.), Investment and the use of tax and toll revenues in the transport sector. Research in Transportation Economics (Vol. 9, pp. 243–268). Elsevier, Oxford.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Rich, J., & Nielsen, O. A. (2007). A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen. Transport Policy, 14(4), 330–345. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2007.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Richards, M. G. (2006). Congestion charging in London. The policy and the politics. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Richardson, H. W. (1974). A note on the distributional effects of road pricing. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 8(1), 82–85.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Roch, S., Savard, G., & Marcotte, P. (2005). An approximation algorithm for Stackelberg network pricing. Networks, 46, 57–67. doi:10.1002/net.20074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Roth, G. (1996) Roads in a market economy. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Roth, G. (ed.) (2006). Street smart: Competition, enterpreneurship, and the future of roads. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publisher.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Roth, E. A. (2002). The economist as engineer: Game theory, experimentation, and computation as tools for design economics. Econometrica, 70(4), 1341–1378. doi:10.1111/1468-0262.00335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Roughgarden, T., & Tardos, E. (2002). Bounding the inefficiency of equilibria in nonatomic congestion games. Games and Economic Behavior, 47(2), 389–403. doi:10.1016/j.geb.2003.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Roughgarden, T. (2005). Selfish routing and the price of anarchy. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Rouwendal, J., & Verhoef, E. T. (2004). Second best pricing for imperfect substitutes in urban networks. In G. Santos (Ed), Road pricing: Theory and evidence, research in transportation economics (Vol. 9, pp. 27–60). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Rouwendal, J., & Verhoef, E. T. (2006). Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications. Transport Policy, 13(2), 106–114. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Safirova, E., Gillingham, K., Parry, I., Nelson, P., Harrington, W., & Mason, D. (2004). Welfare and distributional effects of road pricing schemes for metropolitan Washington D.C. In G. Santos (Ed.), Road pricing: Theory and evidence, research in transportation economics (Vol. 9, pp. 179–206). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Safirova, E., Gillingham, K., & Houde, S. (2007a). Measuring marginal congestion costs of urban transportation: Do networks matter? Transportation Research Part A, 41(8), 734–749.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Safirova, E., Houde, S., Coleman, C., Harrington, W., & Lipman, A. (2007b). A small cordon in the hand is worth two in the bush: Long-term consequences of road pricing. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 86th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Sandholm, W. H. (2002). Evolutionary implementation and congestion pricing. The Review of Economic Studies, 69(3), 667–689. doi:10.1111/1467-937X.t01-1-00026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Santos, G., Newbery, D., & Rojey, L. (2001). Static vs. demand sensitive models and the estimation of efficient cordon tolls: An exercise for eight English towns. Transportation Research Record, 1747, 44–50. doi:10.3141/1747-06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Santos, G. (2002). Double cordon tolls in urban areas to increase social welfare. Transportation Research Record, 1812, 53–59. doi:10.3141/1812–07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Santos, G. (Ed.) (2004). Road pricing: Theory and evidence. Research in Transportation Economics (Vol. 9). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Santos, G., & Rojey, L. (2004). Distributional impacts of road pricing: The truth behind the myth. Transportation, 31(1), 21–42. doi:10.1023/B:PORT.0000007234.98158.6b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Santos, G., & Fraser, G. (2006). Road pricing: Lessons from London. Economic Policy, 21(46), 264–310. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0327.2006.00159.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Sato, T., & Hino, S. (2005). A spatial CGE analysis of road pricing in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 6, 608–623.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Saurí, S., Argote, J., Salas, M., & Robuste, F. (2008). Optimal road pricing for quality service. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC, 2008.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Schade, J., & Schlag, B. (2003). Acceptability of urban transport pricing strategies. Transportation Research Part F, 6(1), 45–61.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Schade, W., & Rothengatter, W. (2005). Research issues in transport economics: Dynamics, integration and indirect effects. In C. Böhringer & A. Lange (Eds.), Applied research in environmental economics (pp. 155–184). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Schmöcker, J.-D., Fonzone, A., Quddus, M., & Bell, M. G. H. (2004). Changes in the frequency of shopping trips in response to a congestion charge. Transport Policy, 13(3), 217–228. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.09.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Schuitema, G., Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2007). Are pricing policies effective to change car use? IATSS Research, 31(1), 21–31.Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Schweitzer, L., & Taylor, B. D. (2008). Just pricing: The distributional effects of congestion pricing and sales taxes. Transportation. doi:10.1007/s11116-008-9165-9.
  325. 325.
    Seik, F. T. (2000). An advanced demand management instrument in urban transport: Electronic road pricing in Singapore. Cities (London, England), 17(1), 33–45. doi:10.1016/S0264-2751(99)00050-5.Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Senbil, M., & Kitamura, R. (2008). Policy effects on decisions under uncertainty: Simulation with mixed logit models of toll expressway users. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Sharp, C., Button, K., & Deadman, D. (1986). The economics of tolled road crossings. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 20(2), 255–274.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Shefer, D. (1994). Congestion, air pollution, and road fatalities in urban areas. Accident; Analysis and Prevention, 26(4), 501–509. doi:10.1016/0001-4575(94)90041-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Shepherd, S. P. (2002). Towards marginal cost pricing: A comparison of alternative pricing systems. Transportation, 30, 411–433. doi:10.1023/A:1024727924926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Shepherd, S. P., & Sumalee, A. (2004). A genetic algorithm based approach to optimal toll level and location problem. Networks and Spatial Economics, 4(2), 161–179. doi:10.1023/B:NETS.0000027771.13826.3a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Shepherd, S. P., Zhang, X., Emberger, G., Hudson, M., May, A. D., & Paulley, N. (2006). Designing optimal urban transport strategies: The role of individual policy instruments and the impact of financial constraints. Transport Policy, 13(1), 49–65. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Shepherd, S. P. (2008). The effect of complex models of externalities on estimated optimal tolls. Transportation, 35, 559–577. doi:10.1007/s11116-007-9157-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Shi, J. (2006). Applied study of price discrimination implemented on a two-path route expressway. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 11(6), 632–639. doi:10.1016/S1007-0214(06)70245-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Siu, B. W. Y., & Lo, H. K. (2007). Integrated tolling and capacity expansion schedule for transportation network management. Journal of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 7, 2305–2320.Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    Small, K. A. (1992). Using the revenues from congestion pricing. Transportation, 19(4), 359–381. doi:10.1007/BF01098639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Small, K. A., & Yan, J. (2001). The value of “value pricing” of roads: Second-best pricing and product differentiation. Journal of Urban Economics, 49(2), 310–336. doi:10.1006/juec.2000.2195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Small, K. A., Winston, C., & Yan, J. (2006). Differentiated pricing, express lanes, and carpools: Exploiting heterogeneous preferences in policy design. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 7, 53–96. doi:10.1353/urb.2006.0027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Small, K. A., & Verhoef, E. T. (2007). The economics of urban transportation. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    Smith, A., Eriksson, E., & Lindberg, P. (1994). Existence of optimal tolls under conditions of stochastic user-equilibria. In B. Johansson & L. Mattsson (Eds.), Road pricing: Theory, empirical assessment and policy (pp. 65–87). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Smith, M. J. (2006). Bilevel optimisation of prices and signals in transportation models. In S. Lawphongpanich, D. W. Hearn, & M. J. Smith (Eds.), Mathematical and computational models for congestion charging (pp. 159–200). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Steiner, T. J., & Bristow, A. L. (2000). Road pricing in National Parks: A case study in the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Transport Policy, 7(2), 93–103. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(99)00026-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Steininger, K. W., Friedl, B., & Gebetsroither, B. (2007). Sustainability impacts of car road pricing: A computable general equilibrium analysis for Austria. Ecological Economics, 63(1), 59–69. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.09.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Stewart, K., & Maher, M. J. (2006). Minimal revenue network tolling: System optimisation under stochastic assignment. In S. Lawphongpanich, D. W. Hearn, & M. J. Smith (Eds.), Mathematical and computational models for congestion charging (pp. 201–218). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Stewart, K. (2007). Tolling traffic links under stochastic assignment: Modelling the relationship between the number and price level of tolled links and optimal traffic flows. Transportation Research Part A, 41(7), 644–654.Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Stiller, B., Reichl, P., & Leinen, S. (2001). Pricing and cost recovery for internet services: Practical review, classification and application of relevant models. NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking, 3(2), 149–171. doi:10.1023/A:1011407413900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Sumalee, A., May, T., & Shepherd, S. (2005). Comparison of judgmental and optimal road pricing cordons. Transport Policy, 12(5), 384–390. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Supernak, J., Kaschade, C., & Steffey, D. (2003). Dynamic value pricing on I-15 in San Diego: Impact on travel time and its reliability. Transportation Research Record, 1839, 45–54. doi:10.3141/1839-04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Szeto, W. Y., & Lo, H. K. (2006a). Dynamic traffic assignment: Properties and extensions. Transportmetrica, 2(1), 31–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Szeto, W. Y., & Lo, H. K. (2006b). Transportation network improvement and tolling strategies: The issue of intergeneration equity. Transportation Research Part A, 40(3), 227–243.Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    Szeto, W. Y. (2007). Competition between information service providers and toll road operators: Modeling frameworks. Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 11(1), 41–56. doi:10.1080/15472450601122421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Szeto, W. Y., & Lo, H. K. (2008). Time-dependent transport network improvement and tolling strategies. Transportation Research Part A, 42(2), 376–391.Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Tabuchi, T. (1993). Bottleneck congestion and modal split. Journal of Urban Economics, 34(3), 414–431. doi:10.1006/juec.1993.1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Takama, T., & Preston, J. (2008). Forecasting the effects of road user charge by stochastic agent-based modeling. Transportation Research Part A, 42(4), 738–749.Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Teodorovic, D., & Edara, P. (2007). A real-time road pricing system: The case of a two-link parallel network. Computers & Operations Research, 34(1), 2–27. doi:10.1016/j.cor.2005.02.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Teubel, U. (2000). The welfare effects and distributional impacts of road user charges on commuters: An empirical analysis of Dresden. International Journal of Transport Economics, 27(2), 231–255.Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Thorpe, N., & Hills, P. (2003). Investigating drivers’ responses to road-user charges using global positioning system (GPS) technology. IATSS Research, 27(1), 75–84.Google Scholar
  357. 357.
    TRB (2005). International perspectives on road pricing. In TRB conference Proceedings, Transportation Research Board (Vol. 34). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Tsai, J.-F. (2003). Road investment and congestion tolling with information provision. Taipei Economic Inquiry, 39(1), 71–102.Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    Tsai, J.-F., & Chu, C.-P. (2003). The analysis of regulation on private highway investment under a build-operate-transfer scheme. Transportation, 30, 221–243. doi:10.1023/A:1022503428001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Turvey, R. (2000). Infrastructure access pricing and lumpy investments. Utilities Policy, 9(4), 207–218. doi:10.1016/S0957-1787(02)00005-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Ubbels, B., & Verhoef, E. T. (2008). Governmental competition in road charging and capacity choice. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 38(2), 174–190. doi:10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2008.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Ungemah, D. (2007). This land is your land, this land is my land: Addressing equity and fairness in tolling and pricing. Transportation Research Record, 2013, 13–20. doi:10.3141/2013-03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Vadali, S. (2008). Toll roads and economic development: Exploring effects on property values. The Annals of Regional Science, 42(3), 591–620. doi:10.1007/s00168-007-0180-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Van Dender, K. (2004). Pricing transport networks with fixed residential location. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 34(3), 289–307. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(03)00057-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Varaiya, P. (2008). Freeway congestion, ramp metering, and tolls. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 366(1872), 1921–1930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Verhoef, E. T., Nijkamp, P., & Rietveld, P. (1995). The economics of regulatory parking policies: The (IM)possibilities of parking policies in traffic regulation. Transportation Research Part A, 29(2), 141–156.Google Scholar
  367. 367.
    Verhoef, E. T., Emmerink, R. H. M., Nijkamp, P., & Rietveld, P. (1996a). Information provision, flat and fine congestion tolling and the efficiency of road usage. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 26(5), 465–559. doi:10.1016/0166-0462(96)02130-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Verhoef, E. T., Nijkamp, P., & Rietveld, P. (1996b). Second-best congestion pricing the case of an untolled alternative. Journal of Urban Economics, 40(3), 279–302. doi:10.1006/juec.1996.0033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Verhoef, E. T., van den Bergh, J. C. J. M., & Button, K. J. (1997). Transport, spatial economy, and the global environment. Environment & Planning A, 29(7), 1195–1213. doi:10.1068/a291195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Verhoef, E. T. (1999). Time, speeds, flows and densities in static models of road traffic congestion and congestion pricing. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 29(3), 341–369. doi:10.1016/S0166-0462(98)00032-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Verhoef, E. T. (2001). An integrated dynamic model of road traffic congestion based on simple car-following theory: Exploring hypercongestion. Journal of Urban Economics, 49(3), 505–542. doi:10.1006/juec.2000.2203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Verhoef, E. T. (2002). Second-best congestion pricing in general networks. Heuristic algorithms for finding second-best optimal toll levels and toll points. Transportation Research Part B, 36(8), 707–729. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(01)00025-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Verhoef, E. T., & Rouwendal, J. (2004). Pricing, capacity choice, and financing in transportation networks. Journal of Regional Science, 44(3), 405–435. doi:10.1111/j.0022-4146.2004.00343.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Verhoef, E. T., & Small, K. A. (2004). Product differentiation on roads: Constrained congestion pricing with heterogeneous users. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 38(1), 127–156.Google Scholar
  375. 375.
    Verhoef, E. T. (2007). Second-best road pricing through highway franchising. Journal of Urban Economics, 62(2), 337–361. doi:10.1016/j.jue.2006.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Verhoef, E. T., Koh, A., & Shepherd, S. (2008). Pricing, capacity and long-run cost functions for first-best and second-best network problems. Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper TI 2008-056/3, Amsterdam (available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1143283).
  377. 377.
    Vickerman, R. (2005). Evaluating the wider economic impacts of congestion charging schemes: The limitations of conventional modeling approaches. In Proceedings of the 45th European regional science association congress. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Vickrey, W. S. (1969). Congestion theory and transport investment. The American Economic Review, 59(2), 251–260.Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Viegas, J. M. (2001). Making urban road pricing acceptable and effective: Searching for quality and equity in urban mobility. Transport Policy, 8(4), 289–294. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(01)00024-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Viegas, J. M. (Ed.) (2005). Interurban road charging for trucks in Europe. In Research in transportation economics (Vol. 11). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    Viton, P. A. (1995). Private roads. Journal of Urban Economics, 37(3), 260–289. doi:10.1006/juec.1995.1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Vold, A. (2006). Phased implementation of transport pricing for Greater Oslo. Transport Policy, 13(2), 140–148. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.11.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Wallace, B., Mannering, F., & Rutherford, G. S. (1999). Evaluating effects of transportation demand management strategies on trip generation by using Poisson and negative binomial regression. Transportation Research Record, 1682, 70–77. doi:10.3141/1682-09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Waller, S. T., Kockelman, K. M., Ukkusuri, S. V., & Boyles, S. (2006). Examining the benefit of accounting for traffic dynamics in congestion pricing applications. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 85th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  385. 385.
    Walters, A. A. (1961). The theory and measurement of private and social cost of highway congestion. Econometrica, 29(4), 676–699. doi:10.2307/1911814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Wang, J. Y. T., Yang, H., & Verhoef, E. T. (2004). Strategic interactions of bilateral monopoly on a private highway. Networks and Spatial Economics, 4(2), 203–235. doi:10.1023/B:NETS.0000027773.75570.5f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Ward, J. L., & Sussman, J. M. (2006). Malaysian toll road public–private partnership program: Analysis and recommendations for policy improvements. Transportation Research Record, 1960, 119–127. doi:10.3141/1960-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Wardrop, J. G. (1952). Some theoretical aspects of road traffic research. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 2(1), 325–362.Google Scholar
  389. 389.
    Washbrook, K., Haider, W., & Jaccard, M. (2006). Estimating commuter mode choice: A discrete choice analysis of the impact of road pricing and parking charges. Transportation, 33(6), 621–639. doi:10.1007/s11116-005-5711-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Weinstein, A., & Sciara, G.-C. (2006). Unraveling equity in HOT lane planning: A view from practice. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26(2), 174–184. doi:10.1177/0739456X06288093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Weisbrod, G., Vary, D., & Treyz, G. (2003). Measuring economic costs of urban traffic congestion to business. Transportation Research Record, 1839, 98–106. doi:10.3141/1839-10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Whitehead, T. (2002). Road user charging and business performance: Identifying the processes of economic change. Transport Policy, 9(3), 221–240.Google Scholar
  393. 393.
    Whitehead, T., Preston, J., & Holvad, T. (2005). The whole-life impacts of transport-charging interventions on business performance: A time-marching framework. Environment and Planning A, 37(5), 877–894.Google Scholar
  394. 394.
    Wie, B., & Tobin, R. L. (1998). Dynamic congestion pricing models for general traffic networks. Transportation Research Part B, 32(5), 313–327. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(97)00043-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Wie, B. (2007). Dynamic Stackelberg equilibrium congestion pricing. Transportation Research Part C, 15(3), 154–174. doi:10.1016/j.trc.2007.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Wilson, J. D. (1983). Optimal road capacity in the presence of unpriced congestion. Journal of Urban Economics, 13(3), 337–357. doi:10.1016/0094-1190(83)90038-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Xiao, F., Yang, H., & Han, D. (2007). Competition and efficiency of private toll roads. Transportation Research Part B, 41(3), 292–308. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2006.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Xiao, F., & Yang, H. (2008). Efficiency loss of private road with continuously distributed value-of-time. Transportmetrica, 4(1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Xin, W., & Levinson, D. M. (2007). Stochastic congestion and pricing model with endogenous departure time selection and heterogeneous travelers. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 86th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  400. 400.
    Yamamoto, T., Fujii, S., Kitamura, R., & Yoshida, H. (2000). Analysis of time allocation, departure time, and route choice behavior under congestion pricing. Transportation Research Record, 1725, 95–101. doi:10.3141/1725-13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Yang, F., Yin, Y., & Lu, J. (2007). Steepest descent day-to-day dynamic toll. Transportation Research Record, 2039, 83–90. doi:10.3141/2039-10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Yang, F. (2008). Day-to-day dynamic optimal tolls with elastic demand. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  403. 403.
    Yang, H., & Lam, W. H. K. (1996). Optimal road tolls under conditions of queueing and congestion. Transportation Research Part A, 30(5), 319–332.Google Scholar
  404. 404.
    Yang, H., & Bell, M. G. H. (1997). Traffic restraint, road pricing and network equilibrium. Transportation Research Part B, 31(4), 303–314. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(96)00030-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Yang, H., & Huang, H. J. (1997). Analysis of the time-varying pricing of a bottleneck with elastic demand using optimal control theory. Transportation Research Part B, 31(6), 425–440. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(97)00005-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Yang, H. (1999a). System optimum, stochastic user equilibrium, and optimal link tolls. Transportation Science, 33(4), 354–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Yang, H. (1999b). Evaluating the benefits of a combined route guidance and road pricing system in a traffic network with recurrent congestion. Transportation, 26(3), 299–322. doi:10.1023/A:1005129309812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Yang, H., & Huang, H. J. (1999). Carpooling and congestion pricing in a multilane highway with high-occupancy-vehicle lanes. Transportation Research Part A, 33(2), 139–155.Google Scholar
  409. 409.
    Yang, H., & Meng, Q. (2000). Highway pricing and capacity choice in a road network under build-operate-transfer scheme. Transportation Research Part A, 34(3), 207–222.Google Scholar
  410. 410.
    Yang, H., & Woo, K. K. (2000). Competition and equilibria of private toll roads in a traffic network. Transportation Research Record, 1733, 15–22. doi:10.3141/1733-03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Yang, H., & Zhang, X. (2002). Multiclass network toll design problem with social and spatial equity constraints. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 128(5), 420–428. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(2002)128:5(420).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Yang, H., Tang, W. H., Cheung, W. M. & Meng, Q. (2002). Profitability and welfare gain of private toll roads in a network with heterogeneous users. Transportation Research Part A, 36(6), 537–554.Google Scholar
  413. 413.
    Yang, H., Meng, Q., & Lee, D. H. (2004a). Trial-and-error implementation of marginal-cost pricing on networks in the absence of demand functions. Transportation Research Part B, 38(6), 477–493. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(03)00077-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Yang, H., Zhang, X., & Meng, Q. (2004b). Modeling private highways in networks with entry–exit based toll charges. Transportation Research Part B, 38(3), 191–213. doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(03)00050-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Yang, H., & Huang, H. J. (2005). Mathematical and economic theory of road pricing. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  416. 416.
    Yildirim, M. B., & Hearn, D. W. (2005). A first best toll pricing framework for variable demand traffic assignment problems. Transportation Research Part B, 39(8), 659–678. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2004.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Yin, Y., & Yang, H. (2004). Optimal tolls with a multiclass, bicriterion traffic network equilibrium. Transportation Research Record, 1882, 45–52. doi:10.3141/1882-06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Yin, Y., & Lawphongpanich, S. (2006). Internalizing emission externality on road networks. Transportation Research Part D, 11(4), 292–301. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2006.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Yin, Y., & Lawphongpanich, S. (2008). Alternative marginal-cost pricing for road networks. NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking (this issue).Google Scholar
  420. 420.
    Ying, J. (2005). Sensitivity analysis based method for optimal road network pricing. Annals of Operations Research, 133(1–4), 303–317. doi:10.1007/s10479-004-5040-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Ying, J., & Ando, R. (2007). On the effects of Central Japan expressway’s commuter toll discount policy in Nagoya area. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 12(1), 151–157. doi:10.1016/S1007-0214(07)70022-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Zhang, H. M., & Ge, Y. E. (2004). Modeling variable demand equilibrium under second-best road pricing. Transportation Research Part B, 38, 733–749. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2003.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Zhang, R., & Verhoef, E. T. (2004). A monopolistic market for advanced traveller information systems and road use efficiency. Transportation Research Part A, 40(5), 424–443.Google Scholar
  424. 424.
    Zhang, X., & Yang, H. (2004). The optimal cordon-based network congestion pricing problem. Transportation Research Part B, 38(6), 517–537. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2003.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Zhang, X., Yang, H., & Huang, H. J. (2008a). Multiclass multicriteria mixed equilibrium on networks and uniform link tolls for system optimum. European Journal of Operational Research, 189(1), 146–158. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2007.05.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Zhang, X., Huang, H. J., & Zhang, H. M. (2008b). Integrated daily commuting patterns and optimal road tolls and parking fees in a linear city. Transportation Research Part B, 42(1), 38–56. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2007.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Zhang, L., Levinson, D., & Zhu, S. (2008c). Agent-based model of price competition, capacity choice, and product differentiation on congested networks. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  428. 428.
    Zhao, Y., & Kockelman, K. M. (2006). On-line marginal-cost pricing across networks: Incorporating heterogeneous users and stochastic equilibria. Transportation Research Part B, 40(5), 424–435. doi:10.1016/j.trb.2005.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Zhao, Y., Kockelman, K. M., & Karlstrom, A. (2008). Welfare calculations in discrete choice settings: Role of error term correlation. In Proceedings of the transportation research board 87th annual meeting. Washington, DC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Planning and Economic Research (KEPE)AthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Business and Economics, Institute of Information SystemsUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations