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The Effects of Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury on Episodic Memory: a Meta-Analysis

  • Eli VakilEmail author
  • Yoram Greenstein
  • Izhak Weiss
  • Sarit Shtein
Review

Abstract

Memory impairment following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is among its most pronounced effects. The present meta-analysis focused only on studies of episodic memory (n = 73) conducted with adult patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. The results indicate that verbal Memory, and more specifically Verbal Recall, is most sensitive to the effects of moderate-to-severe TBI. Furthermore, verbal more than visual memory and recall more than recognition are sensitive to the effects of TBI. These effects are more pronounced in delayed than in immediate testing. Several moderating factors were found: age at testing - the younger the age, the greater the effect size of verbal recall. A greater effect size of delayed story recall was related to an older age of testing and longer time since the injury. The higher the educational level, the smaller is the effect size of visual recall. The clinical implications are discussed.

Keywords

TBI Episodic memory Meta-analysis Time delay Word list Story recall 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Israeli Ministry of Defense, Rehabilitation Department.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

Studies Included in the Meta-Analysis Are Indicated by an Asterisk

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eli Vakil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoram Greenstein
    • 2
  • Izhak Weiss
    • 3
  • Sarit Shtein
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Leslie and Susan Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research CenterBar-Ilan UniversityRamat-GanIsrael
  2. 2.Hakibbutzim Teachers College and Zefat Academic CollegeTel AvivIsrael
  3. 3.School of EducationBar Ilan UniversityRamat-GanIsrael
  4. 4.Levinsky College of EducationTel AvivIsrael

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