Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders


This study aims to systematically review the evidence on the accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test for diagnosing HIV–associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and to outline the quality and quantity of research evidence available about the accuracy of MoCA in populations infected with HIV. We conducted a systematic literature review, searching five databases from inception until January 2019. We extracted dichotomized positive and negative test results at various thresholds and calculated the sensitivity and specificity of MoCA. Quality assessment was performed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) criteria. Eight cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Overall, 1014 patients were included but most studies recruited small samples. Recruitment period ranged from 2009 to 2015. We assessed most studies as being applicable to the review question though we had concerns about the selection of participants in three studies. The accuracy of MoCA for diagnosing HAND was reported at six cut-off points (scores 22–27). The MoCA test provides information about general cognitive functioning disturbances that contribute to a diagnosis of HAND. A lower threshold than the original cut-off of 26 is probably more useful for optimal screening of HAND, as it lowers false positive rates and improves diagnostic accuracy. Nonetheless, the choice of cut-off always comes with a sensitivity-specificity trade-off, the preferred cut point depending on whether sensitivity or specificity is more valuable in a given context.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Aberg, J. A., Gallant, J. E., Ghanem, K. G., Emmanuel, P., Zingman, B. S., & Horberg, M. A. (2014). Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV: 2013 update by the HIV medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58(1), e1–e34.

  2. Angus, B., Awosusi, F., Barker, G., Boffito, M., Brook, G., Das, S., et al. (2016). BHIVA guidelines for the routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-positive individuals. https://www.bhiva.org/monitoring-guidelines. Accessed 12 January 2019.

  3. Antinori, A., Arendt, G., Becker, J. T., Brew, B. J., Byrd, D. A., Cherner, M., … Wojna, V. E. (2007). Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology, 69(18), 1789–1799.

  4. Bezdicek, O., Majerova, V., Novak, M., Nikolai, T., Ruzicka, E., & Roth, J. (2013). Validity of the Montreal cognitive assessment in the detection of cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 20(1), 33–40.

  5. Bottiggi, K. A., Chang, J. J., Schmitt, F. A., Avison, M. J., Mootoor, Y., Nath, A., & Berger, J. R. (2007). The HIV dementia scale: Predictive power in mild dementia and HAART. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 260(1–2), 11–15.

  6. Carson, N., Leach, L., & Murphy, K. J. (2018). A re-examination of Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) cutoff scores. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33(2), 379–388.

  7. Chan, P., & Brew, B. J. (2014). HIV associated neurocognitive disorders in the modern antiviral treatment era: Prevalence, characteristics, biomarkers, and effects of treatment. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 11(3), 317–324.

  8. Ciccarelli, N., Fabbiani, M., Colafigli, M., Trecarichi, E. M., Silveri, M. C., Cauda, R., … di Giambenedetto, S. (2013). Revised central nervous system neuropenetration- effectiveness score is associated with cognitive disorders in HIV-infected patients with controlled plasma viraemia. Antiviral Therapy, 18(2), 153–160.

  9. Costa, A. S., Fimm, B., Friesen, P., Soundjock, H., Rottschy, C., Gross, T., … Reetz, K. (2012). Alternate-form reliability of the Montreal cognitive assessment screening test in a clinical setting. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 33(6), 379–384.

  10. Crowe, S. F. (1998). The differential contribution of mental tracking, cognitive flexibility, visual search, and motor speed to performance on parts a and B of the trail making test. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(5), 585–591.

  11. Cysique, L. A., Maruff, P., & Brew, B. J. (2004). Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre and post highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: A combined study of two cohorts. Journal of Neurovirology, 10, 350–357.

  12. Cysique, L. A., Waters, E. K., & Brew, B. J. (2011). Central nervous system antiretroviral efficacy in HIV infection: A qualitative and quantitative review and implications for future research. BMC Neurology, 11(1), 148.

  13. Davis, D. H., Creavin, S. T., Noel-Storr, A., Quinn, T. J., Smailagic, N., Hyde, C., et al. (2013). Neuropsychological tests for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease dementia and other dementias: A generic protocol for cross-sectional and delayed-verification studies. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 3, CD010460.

  14. Davis, D. H., Creavin, S. T., Yip, J. L., Noel-Storr, A. H., Brayne, C., & Cullum, S. (2015). Montreal cognitive assessment for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 10, CD010775.

  15. Dawes, S., Suarez, P., Casey, C. Y., Cherner, M., Marcotte, T. D., Letendre, S., … HNRC Group. (2008). Variable patterns of neuropsychological performance in HIV-1 infection. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(6), 613–626.

  16. De Francesco, D., Underwood, J., Post, F. A., Vera, J. H., Williams, I., Boffito, M., et al. (2016). Defining cognitive impairment in people-living-with-HIV: The POPPY study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 617.

  17. Devlin, K. N., & Giovannetti, T. (2017). Heterogeneity of neuropsychological impairment in HIV infection : Contributions from mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology Review, 27(2), 101–123.

  18. European AIDS Clinical Society. (2018). EACS Guidelines 2018. www.eacsociety.org/guidelines/eacs-guidelines/eacs-guidelines.html. Accessed 12 January 2019.

  19. Fazeli, P. L., Casaletto, K. B., Paolillo, E., Moore, R. C., Moore, D. J., & The Hnrp Group. (2017). Screening for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-positive adults aged 50 years and older: Montreal cognitive assessment relates to self-reported and clinician-rated everyday functioning. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 39(9), 842–853.

  20. Freitas, S., Simoes, M. R., Alves, L., & Santana, I. (2013). Montreal cognitive assessment: Validation study for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer’s Disease & Associated Disorders, 27(1), 37–43.

  21. Gaestel, Y., Amieva, H., Letenneur, L., Dartigues, J. F., & Fabrigoule, C. (2006). Cube drawing performances in normal ageing and Alzheimer’s disease: Data from the PAQUID elderly population-based cohort. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 21(1), 22–32.

  22. Giancola, M. L., Lorenzini, P., Balestra, P., Larussa, D., Baldini, F., Corpolongo, A., … Antinori, A. (2006). Neuroactive antiretroviral drugs do not influence neurocognitive performance in less advanced HIV-infected patients responding to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 41(3), 332–337.

  23. Gill, D. J., Freshman, A., Blender, J. A., & Ravina, B. (2008). The Montreal cognitive assessment as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 23(7), 1043–1046.

  24. Gisslen, M., Price, R. W., & Nilsson, S. (2011). The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: Are we overestimating the real prevalence? BMC Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 356.

  25. Gorman, A. A., Foley, J. M., Ettenhofer, M. L., Hinkin, C. H., & van Gorp, W. G. (2009). Functional consequences of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment. Neuropsychology Review, 19, 186–203.

  26. Grant, I., Franklin, D. R Jr., Deutsch, R., Woods, S.P., Vaida, F., Ellis, R.J., et al. (2014). Asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment increases risk for symptomatic decline. Neurology, 82, 2055–2062, 23.

  27. Haddow, L. J., Floyd, S., Copas, A., & Gilson, R. J. (2013). A systematic review of the screening accuracy of the HIV dementia scale and international HIV dementia scale. PLoS One, 8(4), e61826.

  28. Hakkers, C. S., Kraaijenhof, J. M., Van Oers-Hazelzet, E. B., Visser-Meily, A. J. M. A., Hoepelman, A. I. M., Arends, J. E., et al. (2017). HIV and cognitive impairment in clinical practice: The evaluation of a stepwise screening protocol in relation to clinical outcomes and management. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 31(9), 363–369.

  29. Handbook for Diagnostic Test Accuracy Reviews (n.d.). http://methods.cochrane.org/sdt/handbook-dta-reviews. Accessed 25 January 2019.

  30. Hardy, D. J., & Hinkin, C. H. (2002). Reaction time performance in adults with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(7), 912–929.

  31. Haziot, M. E. J., Barbosa Junior, S. P., Vidal, J. E., de Oliveira, F. T. M., & de Oliveira, A. C. P. (2015). Neuroimaging of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 9(4), 380–384.

  32. Heaton, R. K., Clifford, D. B., Franklin, D. R., Jr., Woods, S. P., Ake, C., Vaida, F., et al. (2010). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: CHARTER study. Neurology, 75(23), 2087–2096.

  33. Heaton, R. K., Franklin, D. R., Ellis, R. J., McCutchan, J. A., Letendre, S. L., Leblanc, S., et al. (2011). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: Differences in rates, nature, and predictors. Journal of Neurovirology, 17, 3–16.

  34. Henry, J. D., & Crawford, J. R. (2004). Verbal fluency deficits in Parkinson’s disease: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10(4), 608–622.

  35. HIV/AIDS Italian Expert Panel. (2017). Linee Guida Italiane sull’utilizzo della Terapia Antiretrovirale e la gestione diagnostico-clinica delle persone con infezione da HIV-1. https://penta-id.org/news/new-italian-guidelines-on-the-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-the-clinical-diagnostic-management-of-hiv-1-affected-patients/. Accessed 13 January 2019.

  36. Hoops, S., Nazem, S., Siderowf, A. D., Duda, J. E., Xie, S. X., Stern, M. B., & Weintraub, D. (2009). Validity of the MoCA and MMSE in the detection of MCI and dementia in Parkinson disease. Neurology, 73(21), 1738–1745.

  37. Ismail, Z., Rajji, T. K., & Shulman, K. I. (2010). Brief cognitive screening instruments: An update. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(2), 111–120.

  38. Jacova, C., Kertesz, A., Blair, M., Fisk, J. D., & Feldman, H. H. (2007). Neuropsychological testing and assessment for dementia. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 3(4), 299–317.

  39. Janssen, M. A. M., Bosch, M., Koopmans, P. P., & Kessels, R. P. C. (2015). Validity of the Montreal cognitive assessment and the HIV dementia scale in the assessment of cognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected patients. Journal of Neurovirology, 21(4), 383–390.

  40. Joska, J. A., Witten, J., Thomas, K. G., Robertson, C., Casson-Crook, M., Roosa, H., … Sacktor, N. C. (2016). A comparison of five brief screening tools for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the USA and South Africa. AIDS and Behavior, 20(8), 1621–1631.

  41. Kami-Onaga, K., Tateyama, M., Kinjo, T., Parrott, G., Tominaga, D., Takahashi-Nakazato, A., … Fujita, J. (2018). Comparison of two screening tests for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder suspected Japanese patients with respect to cART usage. PLoS One, 13(6), e0199106.

  42. Koenig, N., Fujiwara, E., Gill, M. J., & Power, C. (2016). Montreal cognitive assessment performance in HIV/AIDS: Impact of systemic factors. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 43(1), 157–162.

  43. Koski, L., Xie, H., & Finch, L. (2009). Measuring cognition in a geriatric outpatient clinic: Rasch analysis of the Montreal cognitive assessment. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 22(3), 151–160.

  44. Ku, N. S., Lee, Y., Ahn, J. Y., Song, J. E., Kim, M. H., Kim, S. B., et al. (2014). HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in HIV-infected Koreans: Korean NeuroAIDS project. HIV Medicine, 15(8), 470–477.

  45. Larsson, M. U., Almkvist, O., Luszcz, M. A., & Wahlin, T. B. R. (2008). Phonemic fluency deficits in asymptomatic gene carriers for Huntington’s disease. Neuropsychology, 22(5), 596–605.

  46. Lees, R., Selvarajah, J., Fenton, C., Pendlebury, S. T., Langhorne, P., Stott, D. J., & Quinn, T. J. (2014). Test accuracy of cognitive screening tests for diagnosis of dementia and multidomain cognitive impairment in stroke. Stroke, 45(10), 3008–3018.

  47. McArthur, J. C. (2004). HIV dementia: An evolving disease. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 157(1-2), 3–10.

  48. Meyer, A. C., Boscardin, W. J., Kwasa, J. K., & Price, R. W. (2013). Is it time to rethink how neuropsychological tests are used to diagnose mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders? Impact of false-positive rates on prevalence and power. Neuroepidemiology, 41(3–4), 208–216.

  49. Milanini, B., Ciccarelli, N., Fabbiani, M., Baldonero, E., Limiti, S., Gagliardini, R., et al. (2016). Neuropsychological screening tools in Italian HIV+ patients: A comparison of Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination (MMSE). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 30(sup1), 1457–1468.

  50. Milanini, B., Wendelken, L. A., Esmaeili-Firidouni, P., Chartier, M., Crouch, P. C., & Valcour, V. (2014). The Montreal cognitive assessment to screen for cognitive impairment in HIV patients older than 60 years. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 67(1), 67–70.

  51. Mind Exchange Working Group. (2013). Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: A consensus report of the mind exchange program. Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 56(7), 1004–1017.

  52. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & the PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(4), 264–269.

  53. Munoz-Moreno, J. A., Perez-Alvarez, N., Munoz-Murillo, A., Prats, A., Garolera, M., Jurado, M. À., et al. (2014). Classification models for neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection based on demographic and clinical variables. PLoS One, 9(9), e107625.

  54. Nasreddine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bedirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., et al. (2005). The Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695–699.

  55. Nie, K., Zhang, Y., Wang, L., Zhao, J., Huang, Z., Gan, R., … Wang, L. (2012). A pilot study of psychometric properties of the Beijing version of Montreal cognitive assessment in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease in China. Journal of Clinical Neurosciences, 19(11), 1497–1500.

  56. Nightingale, S., Winston, A., Letendre, S., Michael, B. D., McArthur, J. C., Khoo, S., & Solomon, T. (2014). Controversies in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Lancet Neurology, 13(11), 1139–1151.

  57. Nitrini, R., Caramelli, P., Herrera, E., Porto, C. S., Charchat-Fichman, H., Carthery, M. T., et al. (2004). Performance of illiterate and literate nondemented elderly subjects in two tests of long-term memory. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10(4), 634–638.

  58. O’Keeffe, E., Mukhtar, O., & O’Keeffe, S. T. (2011). Orientation to time as a guide to the presence and severity of cognitive impairment in older hospital patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 82(5), 500–504.

  59. Obermeit, L. C., Beltran, J., Casaletto, K. B., Franklin, D. R., Letendre, S., Ellis, R., … CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Group. (2017). Evaluating the accuracy of self-report for diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND): Defining “symptomatic” versus “asymptomatic” HAND. Journal of Neurovirology, 23(1), 67–78.

  60. Overton, E. T., Azad, T., Parker, N., Demarco Shaw, D., Frain, J., Spitz, T., … Ances, B. M. (2013). The Alzheimer Disease-8 and Montreal cognitive assessment as screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons. Journal of Neurovirology, 19(1), 109–116.

  61. Ozdilek, B., & Kenangil, G. (2014). Validation of the Turkish version of the Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA-TR) in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Clinical Neuropsychology, 28(2), 333–343.

  62. Pinto, E., & Peters, R. (2009). Literature review of the clock drawing test as a tool for cognitive screening. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 27(3), 201–213.

  63. Price, C. C., Cunningham, H., Coronado, N., Freedland, A., Cosentino, S., Penney, D. L., … Libon, D. J. (2011). Clock drawing in the Montreal cognitive assessment: Recommendations for dementia assessment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31(3), 179–187.

  64. Reitsma, J. B., Glas, A. S., Rutjes, A. W., Scholten, R. J., Bossuyt, P. M., & Zwinderman, A. H. (2005). Bivariate analysis of sensitivity and specificity produces informative summary measures in diagnostic reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 58(10), 982–990.

  65. Robertson, K., Liner, J., & Meeker, R. B. (2012). Antiretroviral neurotoxicity. Journal of Neurovirology, 18(5), 388–399.

  66. Rutter, C. M., & Gatsonis, C. A. (2001). A hierarchical regression approach to meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy evaluations. Statistics in Medicine, 20(19), 2865–2884.

  67. Ryan, J. J., Glass, L. A., Bartels, J. M., Bergner, C. M., & Paolo, A. M. (2009). Predicting neuropsychological test performance on the basis of temporal orientation. Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition, 16(3), 330–337.

  68. Sacktor, N., Skolasky, R. L., Seaberg, E., Munro, C., Becker, J. T., Martin, E., … Miller, E. (2016). Prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. Neurology, 86(4), 334–3410.

  69. Sacktor, N. C., Wong, M., Nakasujja, N., Skolasky, R. L., Selnes, O. A., Musisi, S., … Katabira, E. (2005). The international HIV dementia scale: A new rapid screening test for HIV dementia. AIDS, 19(13), 1367–1374.

  70. Sánchez-Cubillo, I., Periáñez, J. A., Adrover-Roig, D., Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. M., Ríos-Lago, M., Tirapu, J., et al. (2009). Construct validity of the trail making test: Role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 438–450.

  71. Schouten, J., Cinque, P., Gisslen, M., Reiss, P., & Portegies, P. (2011). HIV-1 infection and cognitive impairment in the cART era: A review. AIDS, 25(5), 561–575.

  72. Simioni, S., Cavassini, M., Annoni, J. M., Rimbault, Abraham, A., Bourquin, I., et al. (2010). Cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients despite long-standing suppression of viremia. AIDS, 24(9), 1243–1250.

  73. Šimundić, A. M. (2009). Measures of diagnostic accuracy: Basic definitions. The Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine EJIFCC, 19(4), 203–211.

  74. Sinha, P., & Poggio, T. (1996). Role of learning in three-dimensional form perception. Nature, 384(6608), 460–463.

  75. Skinner, S., Adewale, A. J., DeBlock, L., Gill, M. J., & Power, C. (2009). Neurocognitive screening tools in HIV/AIDS: Comparative performance among patients exposed to antiretroviral therapy. HIV Medicine, 10(4), 246–252.

  76. Small, J. A., Kemper, S., & Lyons, K. (2000). Sentence repetition and processing resources in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language, 75(2), 232–258.

  77. Smit, T. K., Brew, B. J., Tourtellotte, W., Morgello, S., Gelman, B. B., & Saksena, N. K. (2004). Independent evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance mutations in diverse areas of the brain in HIV-infected patients, with and without dementia, on antiretroviral treatment. Journal of Virology, 78(18), 10133–10148.

  78. Smurzynski, M., Wu, K., Letendre, S., Robertson, K., Bosch, R. J., Clifford, D. B., … Ellis, R. (2011). Effects of central nervous system antiretroviral penetration on cognitive functioning in the ALLRT cohort. AIDS, 25(3), 357–365.

  79. Straus, S.E., Glasizou, P., Richardson, W. S., & Haynes, R. B. (2019). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (5th ed.). Elsevier Limited.

  80. Tierney, S. M., Sheppard, D. P., Kordovski, V. M., Faytell, M. P., Avci, G., & Woods, S. P. (2017). A comparison of the sensitivity, stability, and reliability of three diagnostic schemes for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Journal of Neurovirology, 23(3), 404–421.

  81. Troyer, A. K., Moscovitch, M., Winocur, G., Alexander, M. P., & Stuss, D. (1998). Clustering and switching on verbal fluency: The effects of focal frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia, 36(6), 499–504.

  82. Underwood, J., & Winston, A. (2016). Guidelines for evaluation and management of cognitive disorders in HIV-positive individuals. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 13(5), 235–240.

  83. Whiting, P. F., Rutjes, A. W., Westwood, M. E., Mallett, S., Deeks, J. J., Reitsma, J. B., … QUADAS-2 Group. (2011). QUADAS-2: A revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Annals of Internal Medicine, 155(8), 529–536.

  84. Woods, S. P., Moore, D. J., Weber, E., & Grant, I. (2009). Cognitive neuropsychology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neuropsychology Review, 19(2), 152–168.

  85. World Health Organization. (2016). Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations – 2016 update. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Download references

Author information

Rosca EC - acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the article, final approval; Albarqouni L - data extraction, statistical analysis, final approval; Simu M - acquisition of data, analysis, and final approval.

Correspondence to Elena Cecilia Rosca.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Supplemental Figure 1

Study selection flow chart (PDF 29.2 kb)

Supplemental Table 1

(DOCX 19.5 kb)

Supplemental Table 2

(DOCX 19.3 kb)

Supplemental Table 3

(DOCX 16.8 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rosca, E.C., Albarqouni, L. & Simu, M. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders. Neuropsychol Rev 29, 313–327 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-019-09412-9

Download citation


  • Montreal cognitive assessment
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
  • Metaanalysis