Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 46–61 | Cite as

A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Ya Wang
  • Yi-bing Zhang
  • Lu-lu Liu
  • Ji-fang Cui
  • Jing Wang
  • David H. K. Shum
  • Therese van Amelsvoort
  • Raymond C. K. Chan


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by executive dysfunction, and working memory (WM) comprises one core component of executive function. Many studies have investigated WM impairments in individuals with ASD, however, a conclusive agreement has not been reached. The present study provided a meta-analytic review of WM impairments in individuals with ASD and evaluated potential moderating variables of this problem. Twenty-eight studies were included in this study, and the participants comprised 819 individuals with ASD and 875 healthy controls. A significant WM impairment (Cohen’s d = −0.61) was identified in the individuals with ASD, however, this impairment was not associated with age. Results of moderation analyses showed that (a) spatial WM was more severely impaired than verbal WM and (b) the component of cognitive processing (maintenance vs. maintenance plus manipulation) did not affect the severity of WM impairments. These findings suggest that WM is impaired in individuals with ASD and may have implications for interventions related to WM impairments in these individuals.


Working memory Autism spectrum disorders Meta-analysis Moderator 



This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (31571130, and 81571317); Youth Innovation Promotion Association Funding of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Y1CX131003); Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (113000C136); the Beijing Training Project for the Leading Talents in S & T (Z151100000315020), and the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Programme for Creative Research Teams (Y2CX131003).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest



Articles included in the meta-analysis are denoted with *

  1. Alloway, T. P., & Gathercole, S. E. (2006). How does working memory work in the classroom? Educational Research and Review, 1, 134–139.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd edition, revised). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). American psychiatric association diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revised). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. Ansari, S. (2015). The therapeutic potential of working memory training for treating mental disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 481. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00481.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Baddeley, A. (Ed.). (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Baltruschat, L., Hasselhorn, M., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A. C., Mullins, R. D., & Gould, E. R. (2011a). Addressing working memory in children with autism through behavioral intervention. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 267–276. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2010.04.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baltruschat, L., Hasselhorn, M., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A. C., Mullins, R. D., & Gould, E. R. (2011b). Further analysis of the effects of positive reinforcement on working memory in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2), 855–863. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2010.09.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21(1), 37–46. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(85)90022-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67(4), 1816–1835. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01830.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bodner, K. E., Beversdorf, D. Q., Saklayen, S. S., & Christ, S. E. (2012). Noradrenergic moderation of working memory impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18(3), 556–564. doi: 10.1017/S1355617712000070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boucher, J., Mayes, A., & Bigham, S. (2012). Memory in autistic spectrum disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 138(3), 458–496. doi: 10.1037/a0026869.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chan, R. C. K., Shum, D., Toulopoulou, T., & Chen, E. Y. H. (2008). Assessment of executive functions: review of instruments and identification of critical issues. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23, 201–216. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2007.08.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Courchesne, E., & Pierce, K. (2005). Why the frontal cortex in autism might be talking only to itself: local over-connectivity but long-distance disconnection. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15(2), 225–230. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2005.03.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Courchesne, E., Pierce, K., Schumann, C. M., Redcay, E., Buckwalter, J. A., Kennedy, D. P., & Morgan, J. (2007). Mapping early brain development in autism. Neuron, 56(2), 399–413. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.10.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. *Crane, L., Goddard, L., & Pring, L. (2013). Autobiographical memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder: The role of depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind. Autism, 17(2), 205–219. doi:  10.1177/1362361311418690
  18. *Cui, J., Gao, D., Chen, Y., Zou, X., & Wang, Y. (2010). Working memory in early-school-age children with Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(8), 958–967. doi:  10.1007/s10803-010-0943-9
  19. Eack, S. M., Bahorik, A. L., McKnight, S. A. F., Hogarty, S. S., Greenwald, D. P., Newhill, C. E., Phillips, M. L., Keshavan, M. S., & Minshew, N. J. (2013). Commonalities in social and non-social cognitive impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 148(1), 24–28. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.05.013.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Edgin, J. O., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Spatial cognition in autism spectrum disorders: superior, impaired, or just intact? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(6), 729–745. doi: 10.1007/s10803-005-0020-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Baranek, G. T., Cook Jr, E. H., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., . . . Levy, S. E. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 29(6), 439–484.Google Scholar
  22. Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. *Gabig, C. S. (2008). Verbal working memory and story retelling in school-age children with autism. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39(4), 498–511. doi:  10.1044/0161-1461(2008/07-0023)
  24. *García-Villamisar, D., & Della Sala, S. (2002). Dual-task performance in adults with autism. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 7(1), 63–74. doi:  10.1080/13546800143000140
  25. *Geurts, H. M., & Vissers, M. E. (2012). Elderly with autism: executive functions and memory. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 665–675. doi:  10.1007/s10803-011-1291-0
  26. *Geurts, H. M., Verté, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H., & Sergeant, J. A. (2004). How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(4), 836–854. doi:  10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00276.x
  27. Gillberg, I. C., & Gillberg, C. (1989). Asperger syndrome—some epidemiological considerations: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 631–638. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00275.x.
  28. Gilotty, L., Kenworthy, L., Sirian, S., Black, D. O., & Wagner, A. E. (2002). Adaptive skills and executivefunction in autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 241–248. doi: 10.1076/chin.
  29. *Goldberg, M. C., Mostofsky, S. H., Cutting, L. E., Mahone, E. M., Astor, B. C., Denckla, M. B., & Landa, R. J. (2005). Subtle executive impairment in children with autism and children with ADHD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(3), 279–293. doi:  10.1007/s10803-005-3291-4
  30. *Gonzalez-Gadea, M. L., Baez, S., Torralva, T., Castellanos, F. X., Rattazzi, A., Bein, V., . . . Ibanez, A. (2013). Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(2), 817–830. doi:  10.1016/j.ridd.2012.11.009
  31. Gruber, O., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2003). The functional neuroanatomy of human working memory revisited: evidence from 3-T fMRI studies using classical domain-specific interference tasks. NeuroImage, 19(3), 797–809. doi: 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00089-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hallahan, B., Daly, E. M., McAlonan, G., Loth, E., Toal, F., O’Brien, F., Robertson, D., Hales, S., Murphy, C., Murphy, K. C., & Murphy, D. G. M. (2009). Brain morphometry volume in autistic spectrum disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study of adults. Psychological Medicine, 39, 337–346. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708003383.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. *Ham, H. S., Bartolo, A., Corley, M., Rajendran, G., Szabo, A., & Swanson, S. (2011). Exploring the relationship between gestural recognition and imitation: Evidence of dyspraxia in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(1), 1–12. doi:  10.1007/s10803-010-1011-1
  34. *Happé, F., Booth, R., Charlton, R., & Hughes, C. (2006). Executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: examining profiles across domains and ages. Brain and Cognition, 61(1), 25–39. doi:  10.1016/j.bandc.2006.03.004
  35. Hill, E. L. (2004). Evaluating the theory of executive dysfunction in autism. Developmental Review, 24(2), 189–233. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2004.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hill, E. L., & Frith, U. (2003). Understanding autism: insights from mind and brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 358(1430), 281–289. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1209.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the embedded figures test? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(5), 527–534. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01539.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. *Joseph, R. M., McGrath, L. M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2005). Executive dysfunction and its relation to language ability in verbal school-age children with autism. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27(3), 361–378. doi:  10.1207/s15326942dn2703_4
  39. *Joseph, R. M., Steele, S. D., Meyer, E., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2005). Self-ordered pointing in children with autism: failure to use verbal mediation in the service of working memory? Neuropsychologia, 43(10), 1400–1411. doi:  10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.01.010
  40. Jurado, M. B., & Rosselli, M. (2007). The elusive nature of executive functions: a review of our current understanding. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 213–233. doi: 10.1007/s11065-007-9040-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kercood, S., Grskovic, J. A., Banda, D., & Begeske, J. (2014). Working memory and autism: a review of literature. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(10), 1316–1332. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2014.06.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Koshino, H., Carpenter, P. A., Minshew, N. J., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Just, M. A. (2005). Functional connectivity in an fMRI working memory task in high-functioning autism. NeuroImage, 24(3), 810–821. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.09.028.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. *Koshino, H., Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Minshew, N. J., & Just, M. A. (2008). fMRI investigation of working memory for faces in autism: visual coding and underconnectivity with frontal areas. Cerebral Cortex, 18(2), 289–300. doi:  10.1093/cercor/bhm054
  44. *Landa, R. J., & Goldberg, M. C. (2005). Language, social, and executive functions in high functioning autism: a continuum of performance. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(5), 557–573. doi:  10.1007/s10803-005-0001-1.
  45. Le Couteur, A., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Rios, P., Robertson, S., Holdgrafer, M., & McLennan, J. (1989). Autism diagnostic interview: a standardized investigator-based instrument. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(3), 363–387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. *Lopez, B. R., Lincoln, A. J., Ozonoff, S., & Lai, Z. (2005). Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(4), 445–460. doi:  10.1007/s10803-005-5035-x
  47. Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., & Schopler, E. (1989). Austism diagnostic observation schedule: a standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(2), 185–212. doi: 10.1007/BF02211841.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 659–685. doi: 10.1007/BF02172145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., Pickles, A., & Rutter, M. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Luna, B., Minshew, N. J., Garver, K. E., Lazar, N. A., Thulborn, K. R., Eddy, W. F., & Sweeney, J. A. (2002). Neocortical system abnormalities in autism An fMRI study of spatial working memory. Neurology, 59(6), 834–840. doi: 10.1212/WNL.59.6.834.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Luna, B., Doll, S. K., Hegedus, S. J., Minshew, N. J., & Sweeney, J. A. (2007). Maturation of executive function in autism. Biological Psychiatry, 61(4), 474–481. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.02.030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lynch, C. J., Uddin, L. Q., Supekar, K., Khouzam, A., Phillips, J., & Menon, V. (2013). Default mode network in childhood autism: posteromedial cortex heterogeneity and relationship with social deficits. Biological Psychiatry, 74(3), 212–219. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.12.013.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. McGovern, C. W., & Sigman, M. (2005). Continuity and change from early childhood to adolescence in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(4), 401–408. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00361.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Minshew, N. J., & Goldstein, G. (2001). The pattern of intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(8), 1095–1101. doi: 10.1017/S0021963001007867.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Minshew, N. J., Luna, B., & Sweeney, J. A. (1999). Oculomotor evidence for neocortical systems but not cerebellar dysfunction in autism. Neurology, 52(5), 917. doi: 10.1212/WNL.52.5.917.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Morgan, B., Maybery, M., & Durkin, K. (2003). Weak central coherence, poor joint attention, and low verbal ability: independent deficits in early autism. Developmental Psychology, 39(4), 646–656. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.39.4.646.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Morsanyi, K., & Holyoak, K. J. (2010). Analogical reasoning ability in autistic and typically developing children. Developmental Science, 13(4), 578–587. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00915.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. *Nakahachi, T., Iwase, M., Takahashi, H., Honaga, E., Sekiyama, R., Ukai, S., . . . Yamashita, K. (2006). Discrepancy of performance among working memory‐related tasks in autism spectrum disorders was caused by task characteristics, apart from working memory, which could interfere with task execution. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60(3), 312–318. doi:  10.1111/j.1440-1819.2006.01507.x
  59. *Nydén, A., Gillberg, C., Hjelmquist, E., & Heiman, M. (1999). Executive function/attention deficits in boys with Asperger syndrome, attention disorder and reading/writing disorder. Autism, 3(3), 213–228. doi:  10.1177/1362361399003003002
  60. Oliveras-Rentas, R. E., Kenworthy, L., Roberson, R. B., Martin, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2012). WISC-IV profile in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: impaired processing speed is associated with increased autism communication symptoms and decreased adaptive communication abilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 655–664. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1289-7.
  61. Owen, A. M., McMillan, K. M., Laird, A. R., & Bullmore, E. (2005). N‐back working memory paradigm: a meta‐analysis of normative functional neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, 25(1), 46–59. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ozonoff, S., & McEvoy, R. E. (1994). A longitudinal study of executive function and theory of mind development in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 6(3), 415–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (2001). Further evidence of intact working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(3), 257–263. doi: 10.1023/A:1010794902139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Plaisted, K., Swettenham, J., & Rees, L. (1999). Children with autism show local precedence in a divided attention task and global precedence in a selective attention task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(5), 733–742.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. *Poirier, M., Martin, J. S., Gaigg, S. B., & Bowler, D. M. (2011). Short-term memory in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(1), 247–252. doi:  10.1037/a0022298
  66. Rajendran, G., & Mitchell, P. (2007). Cognitive theories of autism. Developmental Review, 27(2), 224–260. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2007.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Redcay, E., & Courchesne, E. (2005). When is the brain enlarged in autism? A meta-analysis of all brain size reports. Biological Psychiatry, 58(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Redick, T. S., & Lindsey, D. R. B. (2013). Complex span and n-back measures of working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(6), 1102–1113. doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0453-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 638–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. *Russell, J., Jarrold, C., & Henry, L. (1996). Working memory in children with autism and with moderate learning difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(6), 673–686. doi:  10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01459.x
  71. *Sachse, M., Schlitt, S., Hainz, D., Ciaramidaro, A., Schirman, S., Walter, H., . . . Freitag, C. M. (2013). Executive and visuo-motor function in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(5), 1222–1235. doi:  10.1007/s10803-012-1668-8
  72. Smith, E. E., & Jonides, J. (1998). Neuroimaging analyses of human working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(20), 12061–12068. doi: 10.1073/pnas.95.20.12061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. *Steele, S. D., Minshew, N. J., Luna, B., & Sweeney, J. A. (2007). Spatial working memory deficits in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(4), 605–612. doi:  10.1007/s10803-006-0202-2
  74. Supekar, K., Uddin, L. Q., Khouzam, A., Phillips, J., Gaillard, W. D., Kenworthy, L. E., Yerys, B. E., Vaidya, C. J., & Menon, V. (2013). Brain hyperconnectivity in children with autism and its links to social deficits. Cell Reports, 5(3), 738–747. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.10.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Thomason, M. E., Race, E., Burrows, B., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Glover, G. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2009). Development of spatial and verbal working memory capacity in the human brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(2), 316–332. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.21028.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Uddin, L. Q., Supekar, K., Lynch, C. J., Khouzam, A., Phillips, J., Feinstein, C., Ryali, S., & Menon, V. (2013). Salience network–based classification and prediction of symptom severity in children with autism. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(8), 869–879. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.104.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. *Verte, S., Geurts, H. M., Roeyers, H., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2005). Executive functioning in children with autism and Tourette syndrome. Development and Psychopathology, 17(2), 415–445. doi:  10.1017/0S0954579405050200
  78. *Verté, S., Geurts, H. M., Roeyers, H., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2006). The relationship of working memory, inhibition, and response variability in child psychopathology. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 151(1), 5–14. doi:  10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.08.023
  79. *Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., Carpenter, P. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2005a). Verbal and spatial working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(6), 747–756. doi:  10.1007/s10803-005-0021-x
  80. *Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., & Minshew, N. J. (2005b). Impaired memory for faces and social scenes in autism: clinical implications of memory dysfunction. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20(1), 1–15. doi:  10.1016/j.acn.2002.08.001
  81. *Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., & Minshew, N. J. (2006). The profile of memory function in children with autism. Neuropsychology, 20(1), 21–29. doi:  10.1037/0894-4105.20.1.21
  82. World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  83. *Yi, L., Fan, Y., Joseph, L., Huang, D., Wang, X. L., Li, J., & Zou, X. (2014). Event-based prospective memory in children with autism spectrum disorder: The role of executive function. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(6), 654–660. doi:  10.1016/j.rasd.2014.03.005
  84. *Zinke, K., Fries, E., Altgassen, M., Kirschbaum, C., Dettenborn, L., & Kliegel, M. (2010). Visuospatial short-term memory explains deficits in tower task planning in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder. Child Neuropsychology, 16(3), 229–241. doi:  10.1080/09297040903559648

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental HealthInstitute of PsychologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Youth WorkChina Youth University for Political SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.National Institute of Education SciencesBeijingChina
  6. 6.Menzies Health Institute Queensland and School of Applied PsychologyGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  7. 7.Department of Psychiatry and PsychologyMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations