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Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 3–15 | Cite as

Connecting the Dots: A Review of Resting Connectivity MRI Studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Jonathan PosnerEmail author
  • Christine Park
  • Zhishun Wang
Review

Abstract

Psychopathology is increasingly viewed from a circuit perspective in which a disorder stems not from circumscribed anomalies in discrete brain regions, but rather from impairments in distributed neural networks. This focus on neural circuitry has rendered resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) an increasingly important role in the elucidation of pathophysiology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Unlike many other MRI techniques that focus on the properties of discrete brain regions, rs-fcMRI measures the coherence of neural activity across anatomically disparate brain regions, examining the connectivity and organization of neural circuits. In this review, we explore the methods available to investigators using rs-fcMRI techniques, including a discussion of their relative merits and limitations. We then review findings from extant rs-fcMRI studies of ADHD focusing on neural circuits implicated in the disorder, especially the default mode network, cognitive control network, and cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops. We conclude by suggesting future directions that may help advance subsequent rs-fcMRI research in ADHD.

Keywords

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Functional connectivity Default mode network Cognitive control network Striatum 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported in part by NIMH grants: K23-MH091249 (JP) and R01-MH101172 (JP) and by funding from the Edwin S. Webster Foundation. Dr. Posner is a principal investigator on an investigator-initiated grant from Shire Pharmaceuticals.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Posner
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Christine Park
    • 2
  • Zhishun Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew York State Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.New York State Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA

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