Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 169–209 | Cite as

Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

Review

Abstract

Reviewed herein are contemporary neuroimaging methods that detect abnormalities associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Despite advances in demonstrating underlying neuropathology in a subset of individuals who sustain mTBI, considerable disagreement persists in neuropsychology about mTBI outcome and metrics for evaluation. This review outlines a thesis for the select use of sensitive neuroimaging methods as potential biomarkers of brain injury recognizing that the majority of individuals who sustain an mTBI recover without neuroimaging signs or neuropsychological sequelae detected with methods currently applied. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several measures that could serve as mTBI biomarkers including the detection of hemosiderin and white matter abnormalities, assessment of white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative measures that directly assess neuroanatomy. Improved prediction of neuropsychological outcomes in mTBI may be achieved with the use of targeted neuroimaging markers.

Keywords

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) Concussion Neuropsychology Neuroimaging Biomarkers Neuropathology Brain damage Cognitive and neurobehavioral sequelae 

Abbreviation

ACR

Anterior corona radiata

ANAM

Automated neurological assessment metrics

CC

Corpus callosum

CT

Computed tomography

CTE

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

CVLT

California verbal learning test

DAI

Diffuse axonal injury

DKI

Diffusion kurtosis imaging

DMN

Default mode network

DOI

Day-of-injury

DSS

Disability status scale

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

EF

Executive function

EN

Executive network

FE

Finite element

FLAIR

Fluid attenuated inversion recovery

fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

GCS

Glasgow coma scale

GM

Gray matter

GRE

Gradient recalled echo

GWI

Gulf war illness

LDFR

Long delay free recall

LOC

Loss of consciousness

M

Mean

MCI

Mild cognitive impairment

MR

Magnetic resonance

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRS

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MS

Multiple sclerosis

mTBI

Mild traumatic brain injury

mcTBI

Mild complicated traumatic brain injury

OI

Orthopedically injured

PCS

Post-concussion(al) syndrome

PTA

Post-traumatic amnesia

RAS

Reticular activating system

RAVLT

Rey auditory verbal learning test

RT

Reaction time

SD or s.d.

Standard deviation

SDMT

Symbol digit modality test

SWI

Susceptibility weighted imaging

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

TBSS

Tract-based spatial statistics

UF

Uncinate fasciculus

WHO

World Health Organization

WM

White matter

WMHs

White matter hyperintensities

Notes

Acknowledgments

The assistance of Jo Ann Petrie, Ph.D. in the preparation of this manuscript is gratefully acknowledged as is the assistance of Tracy J. Abildskov in preparation of some of the illustrations.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  2. 2.Neuroscience CenterBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  3. 3.Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research FacilityBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  5. 5.The Brain Institute of UtahUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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