Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 41–53 | Cite as

Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Older Adults

Review

Abstract

A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes.

Keywords

Aging Sleep Sleep disorders Sleep changes Insomnia Sleep apnea Circadian rhythms Slow wave sleep 

References

  1. Achermann, P., & Borbely, A. A. (1997). Low-frequency (< 1 Hz) oscillations in the human sleep electroencephalogram. Neuroscience, 81, 213–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Achermann, P., & Borbély, A. A. (1994). Simulation of daytime vigilance by the additive interaction of a homeostatic and a circadian process. Biological Cybernetics, 71, 115–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Åkerstedt, T., & Gillberg, M. (1986). Sleep duration and the power spectral density of the EEG. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 64, 119–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloia, M. S., Ilniczky, N., Di Dio, P., Perlis, M. L., Greenblatt, D. W., & Giles, D. E. (2003). Neuropsychological changes and treatment compliance in older adults with sleep apnea. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54, 71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amzica, F., & Massimini, M. (2002). Glial and neuronal interactions during slow wave and paroxysmal activities in the neocortex. Cerebral Cortex, 12, 1101–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amzica, F., & Steriade, M. (1997). The K-complex: its slow (<1-Hz) rhythmicity and relation to delta waves. Neurology, 49, 952–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Amzica, F., & Steriade, M. (1998). Electrophysiological correlates of sleep delta waves. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 107, 69–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ancoli-Israel, S. (2005). Sleep and aging: prevalence of disturbed sleep and treatment considerations in older adults. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(Suppl 9), 24–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ancoli-Israel, S., Klauber, M. R., Butters, N., Parker, L., & Kripke, D. F. (1991a). Dementia in institutionalized elderly: relation to sleep apnea. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 39, 258–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ancoli-Israel, S., Klauber, M. R., Gillin, J. C., Campbell, S. S., & Hofstetter, C. R. (1994). Sleep in non-institutionalized Alzheimer’s disease patients. Aging (Milano.), 6, 451–458.Google Scholar
  11. Ancoli-Israel, S., Klauber, M. R., Jones, D. W., Kripke, D. F., Martin, J., Mason, W., et al. (1997). Variations in circadian rhythms of activity, sleep, and light exposure related to dementia in nursing-home patients. Sleep, 20, 18–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ancoli-Israel, S., Kripke, D. F., Klauber, M. R., Mason, W. J., Fell, R., & Kaplan, O. (1991b). Periodic limb movements in sleep in community-dwelling elderly. Sleep, 14, 496–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ancoli-Israel, S., Kripke, D. F., Klauber, M. R., Mason, W. J., Fell, R., & Kaplan, O. (1991c). Sleep-disordered breathing in community-dwelling elderly. Sleep, 14, 486–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ancoli-Israel, S., Kripke, D., Klauber, M. R., Parker, L., Stepnowsky, C., Kullen, A., et al. (1993). Natural history of sleep disordered breathing in community dwelling elderly. Sleep, 16, S25–S29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ancoli-Israel, S., Kripke, D. F., Mason, W., & Kaplan, O. J. (1985). Sleep apnea and periodic movements in an aging sample. Journal of Gerontology, 49, 419–425.Google Scholar
  16. Ancoli-Israel, S., Parker, L., Sinaee, R., Fell, R. L., & Kripke, D. F. (1989). Sleep fragmentation in patients from a nursing home. Journal of Gerontology, 44, M18–M21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ancoli-Israel, S., Richardson, G. S., Mangano, R. M., Jenkins, L., Hall, P., & Jones, W. S. (2005). Long-term use of sedative hypnotics in older patients with insomnia. Sleep Medicine, 6, 107–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Anderson, C., & Horne, J. A. (2003). Prefrontal cortex: links between low frequency delta EEG in sleep and neuropsychological performance in healthy, older people. Psychophysiology, 40, 349–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barbar, S. I., Enright, P. L., Boyle, P., Foley, D., Sharp, D. S., Petrovitch, H., et al. (2000). Sleep disturbances and their correlates in elderly Japanese American men residing in Hawaii. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55, M406–M411.Google Scholar
  20. Bassetti, C., & Aldrich, M. S. (1999). Sleep apnea in acute cerebrovascular diseases: final report on 128 patients. Sleep, 22, 217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bastien, C., & Campbell, K. (1992). The evoked K-complex: all-or-none phenomenon? Sleep, 15, 236–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Blatter, K., Graw, P., Munch, M., Knoblauch, V., Wirz-Justice, A., & Cajochen, C. (2006). Gender and age differences in psychomotor vigilance performance under differential sleep pressure conditions. Behavioural Brain Research, 168, 312–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bliese, P. D., Wesensten, N. J., & Balkin, T. J. (2006). Age and individual variability in performance during sleep restriction. Journal of Sleep Research, 15, 376–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bliwise, D. L. (1993). Sleep in normal aging and dementia. Sleep, 16, 40–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bliwise, D. L., Carskadon, M. A., & Dement, W. C. (1988). Nightly variation of periodic leg movements in sleep in middle aged and elderly individuals. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 7, 273–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bliwise, D. L., King, A. C., Harris, R. B., & Haskell, W. L. (1992). Prevalence of self-reported poor sleep in a healthy population aged 50–65. Social Science & Medicine, 34, 49–55.Google Scholar
  27. Bliwise, D. L., Trotti, L. M., Greer, S. A., Juncos, J. J., & Rye, D. B. (2010). Phasic muscle activity in sleep and clinical features of Parkinson disease. Annals of Neurology, 68, 353–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Blois, R., Feinberg, I., Gaillard, J. M., Kupfer, D. J., & Webb, W. B. (1983). Sleep in normal and pathological aging. Experientia, 39, 551–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bodizs, R., Bekesy, M., Szucs, A., Barsi, P., & Halasz, P. (2002). Sleep-dependent hippocampal slow activity correlates with waking memory performance in humans. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 441–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bonnet, M. H. (1986). Performance and sleepiness following moderate sleep disruption and slow wave sleep deprivation. Physiology & Behavior, 37, 915–918.Google Scholar
  31. Bonnet, M. H. (1989). The effect of sleep fragmentation on sleep and performance in younger and older subjects. Neurobiology of Aging, 10, 21–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brassington, G. S., King, A. C., & Bliwise, D. L. (2000). Sleep problems as a risk factor for falls in a sample of community-dwelling adults aged 64–99 years. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48, 1234–1240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Buzsaki, G., Bickford, R. G., Ponomareff, G., Thal, L. J., Mandel, R., & Gage, F. H. (1988). Nucleus basalis and thalamic control of neocortical activity in the freely moving rat. The Journal of Neuroscience, 8, 4007–4026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Capampangan, D. J., Wellik, K. E., Parish, J. M., Aguilar, M. I., Snyder, C. R., Wingerchuk, D., et al. (2010). Is obstructive sleep apnea an independent risk factor for stroke? A critically appraised topic. The Neurologist, 16, 269–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chesson, A. L., Jr., Wise, M., Davila, D., Johnson, S., Littner, M., Anderson, W. M., et al. (1999). Practice parameters for the treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. An american academy of sleep medicine report. Standards of practice committee of the american academy of sleep medicine. Sleep, 22, 961–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chotinaiwattarakul, W., Dayalu, P., Chervin, R. D., & Albin, R. L. (2010). Risk of sleep-disordered breathing in Parkinson’s disease. Sleep Breath. Google Scholar
  37. Colrain, I. M., Crowley, K. E., Nicholas, C. L., Afifi, L., Baker, F. C., Padilla, M., et al. (2010). Sleep evoked delta frequency responses show a linear decline in amplitude across the adult lifespan. Neurobiology of Aging, 31, 874–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Colrain, I. M., Webster, K. E., & Hirst, G. (1999). The N550 component of the evoked K-complex: a modality non-specific response? Journal of Sleep Research, 8, 273–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cote, K. A., Epps, T. M., & Campbell, K. B. (2000). The role of the spindle in human information processing of high-intensity stimuli during sleep. Journal of Sleep Research, 9, 19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Crowley, K., Sullivan, E. V., Adalsteinsson, E., Pfefferbaum, A., & Colrain, I. M. (2005). Differentiating pathologic delta from healthy physiologic delta in patients with Alzheimer disease. Sleep, 28, 865–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Crowley, K., Trinder, J., & Colrain, I. M. (2002a). An examination of evoked K-complex amplitude and frequency of occurrence in the elderly. Journal of Sleep Research, 11, 129–140.Google Scholar
  42. Crowley, K., Trinder, J., & Colrain, I. M. (2004). Evoked K-complex generation: the impact of sleep spindles and age. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 471–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Crowley, K., Trinder, J., Kim, Y., Carrington, M., & Colrain, I. M. (2002b). The effects of normal aging on sleep spindle and K-complex production. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113, 1615–1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Czeisler, C. A., Dumont, M., Duffy, J. F., Steinberg, J. D., Richardson, G. S., Brown, E. N., et al. (1992). Association of sleep-wake habits in older people with changes in output of circadian pacemaker. Lancet, 340, 933–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Czeisler, C. A., Weitzman, E. D., Moore-Ede, M. C., Kronauer, R. E., Zimmerman, J. C., & Campbell, C. (1980). Human sleep: its duration and structure depend on the interaction of two separate circadian oscillators. Sleep Research, 9, 270.Google Scholar
  46. Daan, S., & Beersma, D. (1984). Circadian gating of human sleep-wake cycles. In M. C. Moore-Ede & C. A. Czeisler (Eds.), Mathematical models of the circadian sleep-wake cycle (pp. 129–158). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  47. Dement, W. C., Miles, L. E., & Carskadon, M. A. (1982). “White paper” on sleep and aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 30, 25–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dement, W. C., Richardson, G. S., Prinz, P., Carskadon, M. A., Kripke, D., & Czeisler, C. A. (1985). Changes of sleep and wakefulness with age. In C. E. Finch & E. L. Schneider (Eds.), Handbook of the biology of aging (pp. 692–717). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.Google Scholar
  49. Dew, M. A., Hoch, C. C., Buysse, D. J., Monk, T. H., Begley, A. E., Houck, P., et al. (2003). Healthy older adults’ sleep predicts all-cause mortality at 4 to 19 years of follow-up. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 63–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dickel, M. J., & Mosko, S. S. (1990). Morbidity cut-offs for sleep apnea and periodic leg movements in predicting subjective complaints in seniors. Sleep, 13, 155–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dijk, D. J., Beersma, D. G. M., & Daan, S. (1987a). EEG power density during nap sleep: reflection of an hourglass measuring the duration of prior wakefulness. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 2, 207–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dijk, D. J., Beersma, D. G. M., Daan, S., Bloem, G. M., & VandenHoofdakker, R. H. (1987b). Quantitative analysis of the effects of slow wave sleep deprivation during the first 3 h of sleep on subsequent EEG power density. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 236, 323–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dijk, D. J., & Cajochen, C. (1997). Melatonin and the circadian regulation of sleep initiation, consolidation, structure, and the sleep EEG. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 12, 627–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dijk, D. J., & Czeisler, C. A. (1994). Paradoxical timing of the circadian rhythm of sleep propensity serves to consolidate sleep and wakefulness in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 166, 63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Dijk, D. J., Duffy, J. F., & Czeisler, C. A. (1992). Circadian and sleep/wake dependent aspects of subjective alertness and cognitive performance. Journal of Sleep Research, 1, 112–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dijk, D. J., Duffy, J. F., & Czeisler, C. A. (2000). Contribution of circadian physiology and sleep homeostasis to age-related changes in human sleep. Chronobiology International, 17, 285–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dijk, D. J., Kelly, T. K., Riel, E., Duffy, J. F., & Czeisler, C. A. (1999). Altered homeostatic delta EEG response to sleep loss in older people? Sleep, 22(suppl), S226.Google Scholar
  58. Dijk, D. J., Shanahan, T. L., Duffy, J. F., Ronda, J. M., & Czeisler, C. A. (1997). Variation of electroencephalographic activity during non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep with phase of circadian melatonin rhythm in humans. Journal of Physiology, London, 505(3), 851–858.Google Scholar
  59. Driscoll, I., Davatzikos, C., An, Y., Wu, X., Shen, D., Kraut, M., et al. (2009). Longitudinal pattern of regional brain volume change differentiates normal aging from MCI. Neurology, 72, 1906–1913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Duffy, J. F., & Czeisler, C. A. (2002). Age-related change in the relationship between circadian period, circadian phase, and diurnal preference in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 318, 117–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Duffy, J. F., Dijk, D. J., Klerman, E. B., & Czeisler, C. A. (1998). Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people. The American Journal of Physiology, 275, R1478–R1487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Duffy, J. F., Willson, H. J., Wang, W., & Czeisler, C. A. (2009). Healthy older adults better tolerate sleep deprivation than young adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57, 1245–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Durston, S., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., Buitelaar, J. K., & Van, E. H. (2001). Anatomical MRI of the developing human brain: what have we learned? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1012–1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ehlers, C. L., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). Effects of age on delta and REM sleep parameters. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 72, 118–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ehlers, C. L., & Kupfer, D. J. (1997). Slow-wave sleep: Do young adult men and women age differently? Journal of Sleep Research, 6, 211–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Eisensehr, I., Linke, R., Noachtar, S., Schwarz, J., Gildehaus, F. J., & Tatsch, K. (2000). Reduced striatal dopamine transporters in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Comparison with Parkinson’s disease and controls. Brain, 123(Pt 6), 1155–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Elton, M., Winter, O., Heslenfeld, D., Loewy, D., Campbell, K., & Kok, A. (1997). Event-related potentials to tones in the absence and presence of sleep spindles. Journal of Sleep Research, 6, 78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Feinberg, I., & Campbell, I. G. (2003). Kinetics of non-rapid eye movement delta production across sleep and waking in young and elderly normal subjects: theoretical implications. Sleep, 26, 192–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Feinberg, I., Koresko, R. L., & Heller, N. (1967). EEG sleep patterns as a function of normal and pathological aging in man. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 5, 107–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Foley, D., Ancoli-Israel, S., Britz, P., & Walsh, J. (2004). Sleep disturbances and chronic disease in older adults: results of the 2003 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Survey. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Foley, D. J., Masaki, K., White, L., Larkin, E. K., Monjan, A., & Redline, S. (2003). Sleep-disordered breathing and cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese-American men. Sleep, 26, 596–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Foley, D. J., Monjan, A. A., Brown, S. L., Simonsick, E. M., Wallace, R. B., & Blazer, D. G. (1995). Sleep complaints among elderly persons: An epidemiologic study of three communities. Sleep, 18, 425–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gagnon, J. F., Postuma, R. B., Mazza, S., Doyon, J., & Montplaisir, J. (2006). Rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder and neurodegenerative diseases. Lancet Neurology, 5, 424–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Gehrman, P. R., Martin, J. L., Shochat, T., Nolan, S., Corey-Bloom, J., & Ancoli-Israel, S. (2003). Sleep-disordered breathing and agitation in institutionalized adults with Alzheimer disease. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 426–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Giedd, J. N. (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 77–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gillin, J. C., & Byerley, W. F. (1990). Drug therapy: the diagnosis and management of insomnia. New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 239–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Godoy, J., Mellado, P., Tapia, J., & Santin, J. (2009). Obstructive sleep apnea as an independent stroke risk factor: possible mechanisms. Current Molecular Medicine, 9, 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Good, C. D., Johnsrude, I. S., Ashburner, J., Henson, R. N., Friston, K. J., & Frackowiak, R. S. (2001). A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains. Neuroimage, 14, 21–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Goulart, F. O., Godke, B. A., Borges, V., Azevedo-Silva, S. M., Mendes, M. F., Cendoroglo, M. S., et al. (2009). Fatigue in a cohort of geriatric patients with and without Parkinson’s disease. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 42, 771–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hauri, P., & Whisby, J. (1992). Wrist actigraph in insomnia. Sleep, 15, 293–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hauri, P. J., & Wisbey, J. (1994). Actigraphy and insomnia: a closer look part 2: A reply to Dr. Mark J. Chambers. Sleep, 17, 408–410.Google Scholar
  82. Horowitz, T. S., Cade, B. E., Wolfe, J. M., & Czeisler, C. A. (2003). Searching night and day: a dissociation of effects of circadian phase and time awake on visual selective attention and vigilance. Psychological Science, 14, 549–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Huber, R., Ghilardi, M. F., Massimini, M., & Tononi, G. (2004). Local sleep and learning. Nature, 430, 78–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jernigan, T. L., Archibald, S. L., Fennema-Notestine, C., Gamst, A. C., Stout, J. C., Bonner, J., et al. (2001). Effects of age on tissues and regions of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Neurobiology of Aging, 22, 581–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Johansson, P., Alehagen, U., Svanborg, E., Dahlstrom, U., & Brostrom, A. (2009). Sleep disordered breathing in an elderly community-living population: relationship to cardiac function, insomnia symptoms and daytime sleepiness. Sleep Medicine, 10, 1005–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Johnson, M. P., Duffy, J. F., Dijk, D. J., Ronda, J. M., Dyal, C. M., & Czeisler, C. A. (1992). Short-term memory, alertness and performance: a reappraisal of their relationship to body temperature. Journal of Sleep Research, 1, 24–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Johnson, K. G., & Johnson, D. C. (2010a). Frequency of sleep apnea in stroke and TIA patients: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 6, 131–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Johnson, K. G., & Johnson, D. C. (2010b). Obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for stroke and atrial fibrillation. Chest, 138, 239–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Klein, D. C., Moore, R. Y., & Reppert, S. M. (1991). Suprachiasmatic nucleus: The mind’s clock. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Knoblauch, V., Münch, M., Blatter, K., Martens, W. L. J., Schröder, C., Schnitzler, C., et al. (2005). Age-related changes in the circadian modulation of sleep-spindle frequency during nap sleep. Sleep, 28, 1093–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kubicki, S., Scheuler, W., Jobert, M., & Pastelak-Price, C. (1989). The effect of age on sleep spindle and K complex density. EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Elektromyogr Verwandte Geb, 20, 59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Landolt, H.-P., Dijk, D. J., Achermann, P., & Borbély, A. A. (1996). Effect of age on the sleep EEG: slow-wave activity and spindle frequency activity in young and middle-aged men. Brain Research, 738, 205–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Larsen, L. H., Moe, K. E., Vitiello, M. V., & Prinz, P. N. (1995). Age trends in the sleep EEG of healthy older men and women. Journal of Sleep Research, 4, 160–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. McCurry, S. M., Reynolds, C. F., Ancoli-Israel, S., Teri, L., & Vitiello, M. V. (2000). Treatment of sleep disturbance in Alzheimer’s disease. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 4, 603–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Monk, T. H. (2005). Aging human circadian rhythms: conventional wisdom may not always be right. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 20, 366–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Montplaisir, J., Boucher, S., Gosselin, A., Poirier, G., & Lavigne, G. (1996). Persistence of repetitive EEG arousals (K-alpha complexes) in RLS treated with L-Dopa. Sleep, 19, 196–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mosko, S. S., Dickel, M. J., & Ashurst, J. (1988a). Night-to-night variability in sleep apnea and sleep-related periodic leg movements in the elderly. Sleep, 11, 340–348.Google Scholar
  98. Mosko, S. S., Dickel, M. J., & Paul, T. (1988b). Sleep apnea and sleep-related periodic leg movements in community seniors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36, 502–508.Google Scholar
  99. Mourtazaev, M. S., Kemp, B., Zwinderman, A. H., & Kamphuisen, H. A. C. (1995). Age and gender affect different characteristics of slow wave in the sleep EEG. Sleep, 18, 557–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Naismith, S. L., Rogers, N. L., Mackenzie, J., Hickie, I. B., & Lewis, S. J. (2010). The relationship between actigraphically defined sleep disturbance and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s Disease. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 112, 420–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Niggemyer, K. A., Begley, A., Monk, T., & Buysse, D. J. (2004). Circadian and homeostatic modulation of sleep in older adults during a 90-minute day study. Sleep, 27, 1535–1541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Niiyama, Y., Fushimi, M., Sekine, A., & Hishikawa, Y. (1995). K-complex evoked in NREM sleep is accompanied by a slow negative potential related to cognitive process. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 95, 27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ohayon, M. M., Carskadon, M. A., Guilleminault, C., & Vitiello, M. V. (2004). Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep, 27, 1255–1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Olson, E. J., Boeve, B. F., & Silber, M. H. (2000). Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in 93 cases. Brain, 123, 331–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Peppard, P. E., Young, T., Palta, M., & Skatrud, J. (2000). Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension. The New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 1378–1384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Peralta, C. M., Frauscher, B., Seppi, K., Wolf, E., Wenning, G. K., Hogl, B., et al. (2009). Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 24, 2076–2080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pfefferbaum, A., Adalsteinsson, E., Spielman, D., Sullivan, E. V., & Lim, K. O. (1999). In vivo spectroscopic quantification of the N-acetyl moiety, creatine, and choline from large volumes of brain gray and white matter: effects of normal aging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 41, 276–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pfefferbaum, A., Mathalon, D. H., Sullivan, E. V., Rawles, J. M., Zipursky, R. B., & Lim, K. O. (1994). A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study of changes in brain morphology from infancy to late adulthood. Archives of Neurology, 51, 874–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Phillips, B., Young, T., Finn, L., Asher, K., Hening, W., & Purvis, C. (2000). Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome in adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 2137–2141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pollak, C. P., & Perlick, D. (1991). Sleep problems and institutionalization of the elderly. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 4, 204–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Portela, P. C., Fumado, J. C., Garcia, H. Q., & Borrego, F. R. (2009). Sleep-disordered breathing and acute stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 27(Suppl 1), 104–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Postuma, R. B., Gagnon, J. F., Vendette, M., & Montplaisir, J. Y. (2009). Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder in the transition to degenerative disease. Movement Disorders, 24, 2225–2232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Raz, N., & Rodrigue, K. M. (2006). Differential aging of the brain: patterns, cognitive correlates and modifiers. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 730–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Raz, N., Rodrigue, K. M., & Haacke, E. M. (2007). Brain aging and its modifiers: insights from in vivo neuromorphometry and susceptibility weighted imaging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1097, 84–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rechtschaffen, A., & Kales, A. (1968). A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human Subjects. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  116. Reynolds, C. F., III, Jennings, J. R., Hoch, C. C., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., Hall, F. T., et al. (1991a). Daytime sleepiness in healthy “old old”: A comparison with young adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 39, 957–962.Google Scholar
  117. Reynolds, C. F., III, Monk, T. H., Hoch, C. C., Jennings, J. R., Buysse, D. J., Houck, P. R., et al. (1991b). Electroencephalographic sleep in the healthy “Old Old”; a comparison with the “Young Old” in visually scored and automated measures. Journal of Gerontology, 46, M39–M46.Google Scholar
  118. Riekkinen, P., Buzsaki, G., Riekkinen, P., Soininen, H., & Partanen, J. (1991). The cholinergic system and EEG slow waves. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 78(2), 89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Riekkinen, P., Sirviö, J., & Riekkinen, P. (1990). Relationship between the cortical choline acetyltransferase content and EEG delta-power. Neuroscience Research, 8(1), 12–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Robinson, G. V., Stradling, J. R., & Davies, R. J. (2004). Sleep. 6: obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and hypertension. Thorax, 59, 1089–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Roth, T., & Ancoli-Israel, S. (1999). Daytime consequences and correlates of insomnia in the United States: results of the 1991 national sleep foundation survey II. Sleep, 22, S354–S358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Shamsuzzaman, A. S., Gersh, B. J., & Somers, V. K. (2003). Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease. JAMA., 290, 1906–1914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Shochat, T., Luboshitzky, R., & Lavie, P. (1997). Nocturnal melatonin onset is phase locked to the primary sleep gate. The American Journal of Physiology, 273, R364–R370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Silva, E. J., Wang, W., Ronda, J. M., Wyatt, J. K., & Duffy, J. F. (2010). Circadian and wake-dependent influences on subjective sleepiness, cognitive throughput, and reaction time performance in older and young adults. Sleep.Google Scholar
  125. Sowell, E. R., Peterson, B. S., Kan, E., Woods, R. P., Yoshii, J., Bansal, R., et al. (2007). Sex differences in cortical thickness mapped in 176 healthy individuals between 7 and 87 years of age. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 1550–1560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sowell, E. R., Trauner, D. A., Gamst, A., & Jernigan, T. L. (2002). Development of cortical and subcortical brain structures in childhood and adolescence: a structural MRI study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 44, 4–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Spriggs, D. A., French, J. M., Murdy, J. M., Curless, R. H., Bates, D., & James, O. F. (1992). Snoring increases the risk of stroke and adversely affects prognosis. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 83, 555–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Steriade, M. (1994). Sleep oscillations and their blockage by activating systems. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 19, 354–358.Google Scholar
  129. Steriade, M. (1997). Synchronized activities of coupled oscillators in the cerebral cortex and thalamus at different levels of vigilance. Cerebral Cortex, 7, 583–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Steriade, M., Amzica, F., & Contreras, D. (1996). Synchronizaton of fast (30-40 Hz) spontaneous cortical rhythms during brain activation. The Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 392–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Steriade, M., Contreras, D., Curro, D. R., & Nunez, A. (1993a). The slow (< 1 Hz) oscillation in reticular thalamic and thalamocortical neurons: scenario of sleep rhythm generation in interacting thalamic and neocortical networks. The Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 3284–3299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Steriade, M., Dossi, R. C., & Nunez, A. (1991). Network modulation of a slow intrinsic oscillation of cat thalamocortical neurons implicated in sleep delta waves: cortically induced synchronization and brainstem cholinergic suppression. The Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 3200–3217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Steriade, M., McCormick, D. A., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1993b). Thalamocortical oscillations in the sleeping and aroused brain. Science, 262, 679–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Steriade, M., Nunez, A., & Amzica, F. (1993c). Intracellular analysis of relations between the slow (< 1 Hz) neocortical oscillation and other sleep rhythms of the electroencephalogram. The Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 3266–3283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Stocchi, F., Barbato, L., Nordera, G., Berardelli, A., & Ruggieri, S. (1998). Sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, 245(Suppl 1), S15–S18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Swift, C. G., & Tiplady, B. (1988). The effects of age on the response to caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 94, 29–31.Google Scholar
  137. Tononi, G., & Cirelli, C. (2003). Sleep and synaptic homeostasis: a hypothesis. Brain Research Bulletin, 62, 143–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Trotti, L. M. (2010). REM sleep behaviour disorder in older individuals: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. Drugs & Aging, 27, 457–470.Google Scholar
  139. Van Coevorden, A., Mockel, J., Laurent, E., Kerkhofs, M., L’Hermite-Balériaux, M., Decoster, C., et al. (1991). Neuroendocrine rhythms and sleep in aging men. The American Journal of Physiology, 260, E651–E661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Vitiello, M. V., Bliwise, D. L., & Prinz, P. N. (1992). Sleep in Alzheimer’s disease and the sundown syndrome. Neurology, 42, 83–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Vitiello, M. V., Larsen, L. H., & Moe, K. E. (2004). Age-related sleep change: Gender and estrogen effects on the subjective-objective sleep quality relationships of healthy, noncomplaining older men and women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 503–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Walhovd, K. B., Westlye, L. T., Amlien, I., Espeseth, T., Reinvang, I., Raz, N. et al. (2009). Consistent neuroanatomical age-related volume differences across multiple samples. Neurobiology of Aging.Google Scholar
  143. Webb, W. B. (1982). Sleep in older persons: sleep structures of 50- to 60-year-old men and women. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 581–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Wei, H. G., Riel, E., Czeisler, C. A., & Dijk, D. J. (1999). Attenuated amplitude of circadian and sleep-dependent modulation of electroencephalographic sleep spindle characteristics in elderly human subjects. Neuroscience Letters, 260, 29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Weitzman, E. D., Moline, M. L., Czeisler, C. A., & Zimmerman, J. C. (1982). Chronobiology of aging: Temperature, sleep-wake rhythms and entrainment. Neurobiology of Aging, 3, 299–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Wyatt, J. K., Ritz-De Cecco, A., Czeisler, C. A., & Dijk, D. J. (1999). Circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, sleep, and neurobehavioral function in humans living on a 20-h day. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 277, R1152–R1163.Google Scholar
  147. Yaggi, H. K., Concato, J., Kernan, W. N., Lichtman, J. H., Brass, L. M., & Mohsenin, V. (2005). Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for stroke and death. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353, 2034–2041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Young, T., Palta, M., Dempsey, J., Skatrud, J., Weber, S., & Badr, S. (1993). The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 1230–1235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Young, T., Shahar, E., Nieto, F. J., Redline, S., Newman, A. B., Gottlieb, D. J., et al. (2002). Predictors of sleep-disordered breathing in community-dwelling adults: the sleep heart health study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162, 893–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Youngstedt, S. D., Kripke, D. F., Klauber, M. R., Sepulveda, R. S., & Mason, W. J. (1998). Periodic leg movements during sleep and sleep disturbances in elders. Journal of Gerontology, 53A, M391–M394.Google Scholar
  151. Zeitzer, J. M., Daniels, J. E., Duffy, J. F., Klerman, E. B., Shanahan, T. L., Dijk, D. J., et al. (1999). Do plasma melatonin concentrations decline with age? The American Journal of Medicine, 107, 432–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Zepelin, H., McDonald, C. S., & Zammit, G. K. (1984). Effects of age on auditory awakening thresholds. Journal of Gerontology, 39, 294–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Zoccolella, S., Savarese, M., Lamberti, P., Manni, R., Pacchetti, C., & Logroscino, G. (2010) Sleep disorders and the natural history of Parkinson’s disease: The contribution of epidemiological studies. Sleep Med Rev, Jul 13.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Sleep MedicineHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Sleep MedicineBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations