Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 339–366

Can Children with Autism Recover? If So, How?

  • Molly Helt
  • Elizabeth Kelley
  • Marcel Kinsbourne
  • Juhi Pandey
  • Hilary Boorstein
  • Martha Herbert
  • Deborah Fein
Article

Abstract

Although Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are generally assumed to be lifelong, we review evidence that between 3% and 25% of children reportedly lose their ASD diagnosis and enter the normal range of cognitive, adaptive and social skills. Predictors of recovery include relatively high intelligence, receptive language, verbal and motor imitation, and motor development, but not overall symptom severity. Earlier age of diagnosis and treatment, and a diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified are also favorable signs. The presence of seizures, mental retardation and genetic syndromes are unfavorable signs, whereas head growth does not predict outcome. Controlled studies that report the most recovery came about after the use of behavioral techniques. Residual vulnerabilities affect higher-order communication and attention. Tics, depression and phobias are frequent residual co-morbidities after recovery. Possible mechanisms of recovery include: normalizing input by forcing attention outward or enriching the environment; promoting the reinforcement value of social stimuli; preventing interfering behaviors; mass practice of weak skills; reducing stress and stabilizing arousal. Improving nutrition and sleep quality is non-specifically beneficial.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorders Language development Recovery Stereotyped motor behavior 

References

  1. Aldred, C., Green, J., & Adams, C. (2004). A new social communication intervention for children with autism: Pilot randomised controlled treatment study suggesting effectiveness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1420–1430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, S. R., Avery, D. L., DiPietro, E. K., Edwards, G. L., & Christan, W. P. (1987). Intensive home-based early intervention with autistic children. Education and Treatment of Children, 10, 352–366.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, M., Hooker, B., & Herbert, M. (2008). Bridging from cells to cognition in autism pathophysiology biological pathways to defective brain function and plasticity. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 4, 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asano, E., Chugani, D. C., Muzik, O., Behen, M., Janisse, J., et al. (2001). Autism in tuberous sclerosis complex is related to both cortical and subcortical dysfunction. Neurology, 57, 1269–1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aschner, M., Allen, J. W., Kimelberg, H. K., LoPachin, R. M., & Streit, W. J. (1999). Glial cells in neurotoxicity development. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 39, 151–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aylward, E. H., Richards, T. L., Berninger, V. W., Nagy, W. E., Field, K. M., Grimme, A. C., et al. (2003). Instructional treatment associated with changes in brain activation in children with dyslexia. Neurology, 61, 212–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey, K. J. (2001). Social competence of children with autism classified as best-outcome following behavior analytic treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 61, 6696.Google Scholar
  9. Baranek, G. T. (1999). Autism during infancy: A retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 213–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beadle-Brown, J., Murphy, J., Wing, L., Gould, J., Shah, A., & Holmes, N. (2000). Changes in skills for people with intellectual disability: A follow-up of the Camberwell cohort. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 44, 12–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Belmonte, M., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2003). Functional anatomy of impaired selective attention and compensatory processing in autism. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 651–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Billstedt, E., Gillberg, C., & Gillberg, C. (2005). Autism after adolescence: Population-based 13- to 22-year follow-up study of 120 individuals diagnosed with autism in childhood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 351–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Birnbrauer, J. S., & Leach, D. J. (1993). The Murdoch early intervention program after 2 years. Behaviour Change, 10, 63–74.Google Scholar
  14. Bishop, S. L., Richler, J., & Lord, C. (2006). Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 12, 247–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolte, S., Hubl, D., Feineis-Matthews, S., Prvulovic, D., Dierks, T., & Poustka, F. (2006). Facial affect recognition training in autism: Can we animate the fusiform gyrus? Behavioral Neuroscience, 120, 211–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Branchi, I., Francia, N., & Alleva, E. (2004). Epigenetic control of neurobehavioural plasticity: The role of neurotrophins. Behavioural Pharmacology, 15, 353–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cederlund, M., Hagberg, B., Billstedt, E., Gillberg, I. C., & Gillberg, C. (2008). Asperger syndrome and autism: A comparative longitudinal follow-up study more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 72–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, Six Sites, United States, 2000. February 9th, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries.Google Scholar
  19. Chang, E. F., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science, 300, 498–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Charman, T., & Baird, G. (2002). Practitioner review: Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in 2- and 3-year-old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 289–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Baird, G., Drew, A., & Cox, A. (2003). Predicting language outcome in infants with autism and pervasive developmental disorder. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 38, 265–285.Google Scholar
  22. Charman, T., Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Baird, G., & Drew, A. (1997). Infants with autism: An investigation of empathy, pretend play, joint attention, and imitation. Developmental Psychology, 33, 781–789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheour, M., Martynova, O., Naatanen, R., Erkkola, R., Sillanpaa, M., Kero, P., et al. (2002). Speech sounds learned by sleeping newborns. Nature, 415, 599–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chugani, D. C. (2004). Serotonin in autism and pediatric epilepsies. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 112–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Church, R. B., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1986). The mismatch between gesture and speech as an index of transitional knowledge. Cognition, 23, 43–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cotman, C. W., & Berchtold, N. C. (2002). Exercise: A behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Courchesne, E., Karns, C. M., Davis, H. R., Ziccardi, R., Carper, R. A., Tigue, Z. D., et al. (2001). Unusual brain growth patterns in early life in patients with autistic disorder: An MRI study. Neurology, 57, 245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Courchesne, E., Townsend, J., Akshoomoff, N. A., Saitoh, O., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Lincoln, A. J., et al. (1994). Impairment in shifting attention in autistic and cerebellar patients. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, 848–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cox, A., Klein, K., Charman, T., Baird, G., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., et al. (1999). Autism spectrum disorders at 20 and 42 months of age: Stability of clinical and ADI-R diagnosis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 719–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Curran, L. K., Newschaffer, C. J., Lee, L. C., Crawford, S. O., Johnston, M. V., & Zimmerman, A. W. (2007). Behaviors associated with fever in children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, e1386–1392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dang-Vu, T. T., Desseilles, M., Peigneux, P., & Maquet, P. (2006). A role for sleep in brain plasticity. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 9, 98–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Danielsson, S., Gillberg, I. C., Billstedt, E., Gillberg, C., & Olsson, I. (2005). Epilepsy in young adults with autism: A prospective population-based follow-up study of 120 individuals diagnosed in childhood. Epilepsia, 46, 918–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dawson, G. (2008). Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 775–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dawson, G., & Zanolli, K. (2003). Early intervention and brain plasticity in autism. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 251, 266–274, discussion 274–280, 281–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Degirmenci, B., Miral, S., Kaya, G. C., Iyilikci, L., Arslan, G., Baykara, A., et al. (2008). Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in autistic children and their families. Psychiatry Research, 162, 236–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dietz, C., Swinkels, S. H. N., Buitelaar, J. K., van Daalen, E., & van Engeland, H. (2007). Stability and change of IQ scores in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 405–410.Google Scholar
  37. Doidge, N. (2007). The brain that changes itself. New York: Viking Books.Google Scholar
  38. Doupe, A. J., & Kuhl, P. K. (1999). Birdsong and human speech: Common themes and mechanisms. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 22, 567–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Drew, A., Baird, G., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., & Slonims, V. (2002). A pilot randomised control trial of a parent training intervention for pre-school children with autism. Preliminary findings and methodological challenges. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 11(6), 266–272.Google Scholar
  40. Eaves, L., & Ho, H. H. (2004). The very early identification of autism: Outcome to age 4 1/2–5. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 367–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Eden, G. F., Jones, K. M., Cappell, K., Gareau, L., Wood, F. B., Zeffiro, T. A., et al. (2004). Neural changes following remediation in adult developmental dyslexia. Neuron, 44, 411–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Eikseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., & Eldevik, S. (2002). Intensive behavioral treatment at school for four to seven year old children with autism: A one-year follow-up. Behavior Modification, 26, 49–68.Google Scholar
  43. Elder, L. M., Dawson, G., Toth, K., Fein, D., & Munson, J. (2008). Head circumference as an early predictor of autism symptoms in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1104–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fein, D., Dixon, P., Paul, J., & Levin, H. (2005). Brief report: Pervasive developmental disorder can resolve into ADHD: Case illustrations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 525–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fein, D., Stevens, M., Dunn, M., Waterhouse, L., Allen, D., Rapin, I., et al. (1999). Subtypes of pervasive developmental disorder: Clinical characteristics. Child Neuropsychology, 5, 1–23.Google Scholar
  46. Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Ashwal, S., Baranek, G. T., Cook Jr., E. H., Dawson, G., et al. (2000). Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society. Neurology, 55, 468–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gabriels, R. L., Cuccaro, M. L., Hill, D. E., Ivers, B. J., & Goldson, E. (2005). Repetitive behaviors in autism: Relationships with associated features. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 169–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gabriels, R. L., Hill, D. E., Pierce, R. A., Rogers, S. A., & Wehner, B. (2001). Predictors of treatment outcome in young children with autism: A retrospective study. Autism, 5, 407–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Garber, K. (2007). Neuroscience. Autism’s cause may reside in abnormalities at the synapse. Science, 317, 190–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gauthier, I., Skudlarski, P., Gore, J. C., & Anderson, A. W. (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 191–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gillberg, C., & Steffenburg, S. (1987). Outcome and prognostic factors in infantile autism and similar conditions: A population-based study of 46 cases followed through puberty. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 273–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Goldman, A. I. (2006). Simulating minds: The philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience of mindreading. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Goldstein, H. (2002). Communication intervention for children with autism: A review of treatment efficacy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 373–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Goodwin, M. S., Groden, J., Velicer, W. F., Lipsitt, L. P., Baron, M. G., Hofmann, S. G., et al. (2006). Cardiovascular arousal in individuals with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21, 100–123.Google Scholar
  55. Gresham, F. M., & MacMillan, D. L. (1998). Early intervention project: Can its claims be substantiated and its effects replicated? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 5–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Grossberg, S., & Seidman, D. (2006). Neural dynamics of autistic behaviors: Cognitive, emotional, and timing substrates. Psychological Review, 113, 483–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gusnard, D. A., Akbudak, E., Shulman, G. L., & Raichle, M. E. (2001). Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: Relation to a default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 4259–4264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Guy, J., Gan, J., Selfridge, J., Cobb, S., & Bird, A. (2007). Reversal of neurological defects in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Science, 315, 1143–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Happe, F., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 5–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris, S. L., & Handleman, J. S. (2000). Age and IQ at intake as predictors of placement for young children with autism: A four- to six-year follow-up. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 137–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Held, R., & Hein, A. (1963). Movement-induced stimulation in the development of visually guided behavior. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 56, 872–876.Google Scholar
  62. Hensch, T. K. (2004). Critical period regulation. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 549–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hensch, T. K., Fagiolini, M., Mataga, N., Stryker, M. P., Baekkeskov, S., & Kash, S. F. (1998). Local GABA circuit control of experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual cortex. Science, 282, 1504–1508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Herbert, M., & Anderson, M. (2008). An expanding spectrum of autism models: From fixed developmental defects to reversible functional impairments. In A. Zimmerman (Ed.), Autism: Current theories and evidence. Totowa, NJ: Humana.Google Scholar
  65. Howard, J. S., Sparkman, C. R., Cohen, H. G., Green, G., & Stanislaw, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 359–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Howlin, P., Goode, S., Hutton, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Adult outcome for children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 212–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hutt, C., Hutt, S. J., Lee, D., & Ounsted, C. (1965). A behavioural and electrophysiological study of autistic children. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 3, 181–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Iacoboni, M., & Dapretto, M. (2006). The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 7, 942–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Jackson, P. L., Lafleur, M. F., Malouin, F., Richards, C. L., & Doyon, J. (2003). Functional cerebral reorganization following motor sequence learning through mental practice with motor imagery. Neuroimage, 20, 1171–1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Jacobs, R. A. (1999). Computational studies of the development of functionally specialized neural modules. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 31–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jacobson, N. S., & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12–19.Google Scholar
  72. Jocelyn, L. J., Casiro, O. G., Beattie, D., Bow, J., & Kneisz, J. (1998). Treatment of children with autism: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate a caregiver-based intervention program in community day-care centers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 326–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Johansen-Berg, H., Dawes, H., Guy, C., Smith, S. M., Wade, D. T., & Matthews, P. M. (2002). Correlation between motor improvements and altered fMRI activity after rehabilitative therapy. Brain, 125, 2731–2742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Johnson, M. H., Halit, H., Grice, S. J., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2002). Neuroimaging of typical and atypical: A perspective from multiple levels of analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 521–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Mitchell, K. J., Touryan, S. R., Greene, E. J., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2006). Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, 56–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Just, M. A., Cherkassy, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2004). Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: Evidence of underconnectivity. Brain, 127, 1811–1821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992). Beyond modularity: A developmental perspective on cognitive science. Boston, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  78. Kelley, E., Paul, J., Fein, D., & Naigles, L. R. (2006). Residual language deficits in optimal outcome children with a history of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 807–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kennedy, D. P., Redcay, E., & Courchesne, E. (2006). Failing to deactivate: Resting functional abnormalities in autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 8275–8280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kinsbourne, M. (1971). The minor cerebral hemisphere as a source of aphasic speech. Archives of Neurology, 25, 302–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kinsbourne, M. (1980). Do repetitive movement patterns in children and animals serve a dearousing function? Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 1, 39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kinsbourne, M. (1987). Cerebral–brainstem relations in infantile autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Neurobiological issues in autism (pp. 107–125). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  83. Kleinman, J., Ventola, P., Pandey, J., Verbalis, A., Barton, M., Hodgson, S., et al. (2008). Diagnostic stability in very young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 606–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kolb, B., Gibb, R., & Gonzalez, C. L. R. (2001). Cortical injury and neuroplasticity during brain development. In C. A. Shaw & J. C. McEachern (Eds.), Toward a theory of neuroplasticity. Lillington, NC: Edward Brothers.Google Scholar
  85. Koegel, L. K. K., Koegel, R. L., Harrower, J. K., & Carter, C. M. (1999). Pivotal response intervention 1: Overview of approach. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24, 174–185.Google Scholar
  86. Kramer, A. F., & Erickson, K. I. (2007). Capitalizing on cortical plasticity: Influence of physical activity on cognition and brain function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 342–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kuhl, P. K., Williams, K. A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1991). Cross-modal speech perception in adults and infants using nonspeech auditory stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 17, 829–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lewis, M. H. (2004). Environmental complexity and central nervous system development and function. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 91–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lewis, M. H., Tanimura, Y., Lee, L. W., & Bodfish, J. W. (2007). Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism. Behavioural Brain Research, 176, 66–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Liepert, J., Bauder, H., Wolfgang, H. R., Miltner, W. H., Taub, E., & Weiller, C. (2000). Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke, 31, 1210–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lord, C. (1995). Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1365–1382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lord, C., & McGee, J. P. (2001). Educating children with autism. Washington DC: National Academic Press.Google Scholar
  93. Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P. S., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 694–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lovaas, I. O. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Loveland, K. A., & Kelley, M. L. (1988). Development of adaptive behavior in adolescents and young adults with autism and down syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 93, 84–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Loveland, K. A., & Kelley, M. L. (1991). Development of adaptive behavior in preschoolers with autism or Down syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 96, 13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Loupe, P. S., Schroeder, S. R., & Tessel, R. E. (1995). FR discrimination training effects in SHR and microencephalic rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 51, 869–876.Google Scholar
  98. Luyster, R., Qiu, S., Lopez, K., & Lord, C. (2007). Predicting outcomes of children referred for autism using the MacArthur–Bates communication inventory. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 667–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Mawhood, L., Howlin, P., & Rutter, M. (2000). Autism and developmental receptive language disorder—A comparative follow-up in early adult life. I: Cognitive and language outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 547–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. McEachin, J. J., Smith, T., & Lovaas, I. O. (1993). Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 359–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. McIntosh, D. N., Reichmann-Decker, A., Winkielman, P., & Wilbarger, J. L. (2006). When the social mirror breaks: Deficits in automatic, but not voluntary, mimicry of emotional facial expressions in autism. Developmental Science, 9, 295–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Mirmiran, M., Scholtens, J., van de Poll, N. E., Uylings, H. B., van der Gugten, J., & Boer, G. J. (1983). Effects of experimental suppression of active (REM) sleep during early development upon adult brain and behavior in the rat. Brain Research, 283, 277–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Moore, V., & Goodson, S. (2003). How well does early diagnosis of autism stand the test of time? Follow-up study of children assessed for autism at age 2 and development of an early diagnostic service. Autism, 7, 47–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Morrow, E. M., Yoo, S. Y., Flavell, S. W., Kim, T. K., Lin, Y., Hill, R. S., et al. (2008). Identifying autism loci and genes by tracing recent shared ancestry. Science, 321, 218–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Mraz, K. D. (2007). Accelerated head and body growth in infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders: A comparative study of optimal outcome children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs.Google Scholar
  106. Mraz, K. D., Green, J., Dumont-Mathieu, T., Makin, S., & Fein, D. (2007). Correlates of head circumference growth in infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Neurology, 22, 700–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Muller, R. A. (2007). The study of autism as a distributed disorder. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 85–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mundy, P. (1993). Normal vs. high-functioning status in children with autism. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 97, 381–384.Google Scholar
  109. Mundy, P., & Crowson, M. (1997). Joint attention and early social communication: Implications for research on intervention with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 653–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Musso, M., Weiller, C., Kiebel, S., Müller, S. P., Bülau, P., & Rijntjes, M. (1999). Training-induced brain plasticity in aphasia. Brain, 122, 1781–1790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Myers, S. M., & Johnson, C. P. (2007). Management of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1162–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Newsom, C., & Rincover, A. (1989). Autism. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disorders (pp. 286–346). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  113. Pascalis, O., de Haan, M., & Nelson, C. A. (2002). Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life? Science, 296, 1321–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Peake, D., Notghi, L. M., & Philip, S. (2005). Management of epilepsy in children with autism. Current Paediatrics, 16, 489–494.Google Scholar
  115. Pessah, I. N., & Lein, P. J. (2008). Evidence for environmental susceptibility in autism: What we need to know about gene × environment interactions. In A. Zimmerman (Ed.), Autism: Current theories and models. Totowa, NJ: Humana.Google Scholar
  116. Pierce, K., Muller, R. A., Ambrose, J., Allen, G., & Courchesne, E. (2001). Face processing occurs outside the fusiform ‘face area’ in autism: Evidence from functional MRI. Brain, 124, 2059–2073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Plaisted, K., Saksida, L., Alcantara, J., & Weisblatt, E. (2003). Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of weak central coherence effects: Experiments in visual configural learning and auditory perception. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 358, 375–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Ramey, C. T., & Ramey, S. L. (1998). Early intervention and early experience. American Psychologist, 53, 109–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Remington, B., Hastings, R. P., Kovshoff, H., degli Espinosa, F., Jahr, E., Brown, T., et al. (2007). Early intensive behavioral intervention: Outcomes for children with autism and their parents after two years. Journal on Mental Retardation, 112, 418–438.Google Scholar
  120. Renner, P., Klinger, L. G., & Klinger, M. R. (2000). Implicit and explicit memory in autism: Is autism an amnesic disorder? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 3–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Richards, T. L., Corina, D., Serafini, S., Steury, K., Echelard, D. R., Dager, S. R., et al. (2000). Effects of a phonologically driven treatment for dyslexia on lactate levels measured by proton MR spectroscopic imaging. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 21, 916–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Rippon, G., Brock, J., Brown, C., & Boucher, J. (2007). Disordered connectivity in the autistic brain: Challenges for the “new psychophysiology”. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63, 164–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Robins, D., Fein, D., Barton, M., & Green, J. (2001). The modified checklist for children with autism: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rogers, S. (2004). Developmental regression in autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 139–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rogers, S. J., Hall, T., Osaki, D., Reaven, J., & Herbison, J. (2000). The Denver model: A comprehensive, integrated educational approach to young children with autism and their families. In J. S. Handleman & S. L. Harris (Eds.), Preschool education programs for children with autism (2nd ed., pp. 95–113). Austin (TX): Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  126. Rogers, S. J., Hayden, D., Hepburn, S., Charliefue-Smith, R., Hall, T., & Hayes, A. (2006). Teaching young nonverbal children with autism useful speech: A pilot study of the Denver model and PROMPT interventions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(8), 1007–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Rogers, S. J., & Vismara, L. A. (2008). Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 8–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Rosenthal, M., Troyb, E., Helt, M., Tyson, K., Eigsti, I., Barton, M., et al. (2008). Executive Functioning in Optimal Outcome Children, May, 08. Presented at International Meeting for Autism Research, London.Google Scholar
  129. Rubenstein, J. L., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Model of autism: Increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes Brain Behavior, 2, 255–267.Google Scholar
  130. Rutter, M. (1970). Autistic children: Infancy to adulthood. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 435–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rutter, M., Andersen-Wood, L., Beckett, C., Bredenkamp, D., Castle, J., Groothues, C., et al. (1999). Quasi-autistic patterns following severe early global privation. English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study Team. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 537–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Saemundsen, E., Ludvigsson, P., Hilmarsdottir, I., & Rafnsson, V. (2007a). Autism spectrum disorders in children with seizures in the first year of life—A population-based study. Epilepsia, 48, 1724–1730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Saemundsen, E., Ludvigsson, P., & Rafnsson, V. (2007b). Autism spectrum disorders in children with a history of infantile spasms: A population-based study. Journal of Child Neurology, 22, 1102–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Sallows, G. O., & Graupner, T. D. (2005). Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: Four-year outcome and predictors. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110, 417–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Schopler, E., Short, A., & Mesibov, G. (1989). Relation of behavioral treatment to normal functioning: Comment on Lovaas. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 162–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Schriebman, L., & Koegel, R. L. (1996). Fostering self-management: Parent-delivered pivotal response training. In E. D. Hibbs & P. S. Jensen (Eds.), Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice (pp. 525–552). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  137. Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 331–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Schultz, R. T., Grelotti, D. J., Klin, A., Kleinman, J., Van der Gaag, C., Marois, R., et al. (2003). The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: Implications for the pathobiology of autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 358, 415–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Seltzer, M. M., Shattuck, P., Abbeduto, L., & Greenberg, J. S. (2004). Trajectory of development in adolescents and adults with autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 234–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Blachman, B. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., et al. (2004). Development of left occipitotemporal systems for skilled reading in children after a phonologically-based intervention. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 926–933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sigman, M., & Ruskin, E. (1999). Continuity and change in the social competence of children with autism, Down syndrome, and developmental delays. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64 (1, Serial No. 256).Google Scholar
  142. Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 921–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Simos, P. G., Fletcher, J. M., Bergman, E., Breier, J. I., Foorman, B. R., Castillo, E. M., et al. (2002). Dyslexia-specific brain activation profile becomes normal following successful remedial training. Neurology, 58, 1203–1213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Smith, T., Groen, A. D., & Wynn, J. W. (2000). Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105, 269–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). Cognitive rehabilitation: An integrative neuropsychological approach. NY, New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  146. Stevens, M. C., Fein, D. A., Dunn, M., Allen, D., Waterhouse, L. H., Feinstein, C., et al. (2000). Subgroups of children with autism by cluster analysis: A longitudinal examination. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 346–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Stone, W. L., Lee, E. B., Ashford, L., Brissie, J., Hepburn, S. L., Coonrod, E. E., et al. (1999). Can autism be diagnosed accurately in children under 3 years? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 219–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Sur, M., & Rubenstein, J. L. (2005). Patterning and plasticity of the cerebral cortex. Science, 310, 805–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Sutcliffe, J. S. (2008). Genetics. Insights into the pathogenesis of autism. Science, 321, 208–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sutera, S., Pandey, J., Esser, E. L., Rosenthal, M. A., Wilson, L. B., Barton, M., et al. (2007). Predictors of optimal outcome in toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 98–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Szatmari, P., Bartolucci, G., Bremner, R., Bond, S., & Rich, S. (1989). A follow-up of high-functioning autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 213–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Szatmari, P., Georgiades, S., Bryson, S., Zwaigenbaum, L., Roberts, W., Mahoney, W., et al. (2006). Investigating the structure of the restricted, repetitive behaviours and interests domain of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 582–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Tager-Flusberg, H. (1997). Perspectives on language and communication in autism. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  154. Taub, E., Ramey, S. L., DeLuca, S., & Echols, K. (2004). Efficacy of constraint-induced movement therapy for children with cerebral palsy with asymmetric motor impairment. Pediatrics, 113, 305–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Temple, E., Deutsch, G. K., Poldrack, R. A., Miller, S. L., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., et al. (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 2860–2865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Thomas, M., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2002). Are developmental disorders like cases of adult brain damage? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 727–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Toth, K., Munson, J., Melzoff, A. N., & Dawson, G. (2006). Early predictors of communication development in young children with autism spectrum disorder: Joint attention, imitation, and toy play. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 993–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Trevarthen, C., & Aitken, K. J. (1994). Infant intersubjectivity: Research, theory and clinical applications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 421, 3–48.Google Scholar
  159. Turner, M. (1999). Annotation: Repetitive behaviour in autism: A review of psychological research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 839–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Turner, L. M., & Stone, W. L. (2007). Variability in outcome for children with an ASD diagnosis at age 2. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 793–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Tyson, K., Rosenthal, M., Helt, M., Troyb, E., Eigsti, I.-M., Naigles, L., et al. (2008). Verbal Learning in Optimal Outcome Children. May, 08. Presented at International Meeting for Autism Research, London.Google Scholar
  162. Vargas, D. L., Nascimbene, C., Krishnan, C., Zimmerman, A. W., & Pardo, C. A. (2005). Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Annals of Neurology, 57, 67–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Ventner, A., Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1992). A follow-up study of high-functioning autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 489–507.Google Scholar
  164. Wang, A. T., Dapretto, M., Hariri, A. R., Sigman, M., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2004). Neural correlates of facial affect processing in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 481–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Warren, R. P., Margaretten, N. C., Pace, N. C., & Foster, A. (2005). Immune abnormalities in patients with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 189–197.Google Scholar
  166. Waterhouse, L., Fein, D., & Modahl, C. (1996). Neurofunctional mechanisms in autism. Psychological Review, 103, 457–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Weiss, M. J. (1999). Differential rates of skill acquisition and outcomes of early intensive behavioral intervention for autism. Behavioral Interventions, 14, 3–22.Google Scholar
  168. Werker, J. F., & Tees, R. C. (1984). Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 49–63.Google Scholar
  169. Werner, E., Dawson, G., Munson, J., & Osterling, J. (2005). Variation in early developmental course in autism and its relation with behavioral outcome at 3–4 years of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 337–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Werner, E., Dawson, G., Osterling, J., & Dinno, N. (2000). Brief report: Recognition of autism spectrum disorder before one year of age: A retrospective study based on home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 157–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Widenfalk, J., Olson, L., & Thoren, P. (1999). Deprived of habitual running, rats down regulate BDNF and TrkB messages in the brain. Neuroscience Research, 34, 125–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Yarrow, L. J., Rubenstein, J. L., & Pedersen, F. A. (1975). Infant and environment: Early cognitive and motivational development. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  173. Zappella, M. (1999). Familial complex tics and autistic behaviour with favourable outcome: A dysmaturational disorder. Infanto, 7, 61–66.Google Scholar
  174. Zappella, M. (2002). Early-onset Tourette syndrome with reversible autistic behaviour: A dysmaturational syndrome. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 11, 18–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Zappella, M. (2005a). The question of reversible autistic behaviour. In M. Coleman (Ed.), The neurology of autism (pp. 157–172). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  176. Zappella, M. (2005b). Clinical and genetic observations on early onset Tourette syndrome with reversible autistic behaviour (dysmaturational syndrome). In D. Riva & I. Rapin (Eds.), Autistic spectrum disorders. Montrouge: John Libbey Eurotext.Google Scholar
  177. Zhou, X., & Merzenich, M. M. (2007). Intensive training in adults refines A1 representations degraded in an early postnatal critical period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 15935–15940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Zoghbi, H. (2003). Postnatal neurodevelopmental disorders: Meeting at the synapse? Science, 302, 826–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Rogers, T., Roberts, W., Brian, J., & Szatmari, P. (2005). Behavioral manifestations of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23, 143–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Molly Helt
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Kelley
    • 2
  • Marcel Kinsbourne
    • 3
  • Juhi Pandey
    • 4
  • Hilary Boorstein
    • 1
  • Martha Herbert
    • 5
  • Deborah Fein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyNew SchoolNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Center for Autism ResearchChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of Neurology and TRANSCEND Research ProgramMassachusetts General HospitalCharlestownUSA

Personalised recommendations