Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 317–336

The Neuropsychology of Amphetamine and Opiate Dependence: Implications for Treatment

Article

Abstract

Chronic use of amphetamines and/or opiates has been associated with a wide range of cognitive deficits, involving domains of attention, inhibitory control, planning, decision-making, learning and memory. Although both amphetamine and opiate users show marked impairment in various aspects of cognitive function, the impairment profile is distinctly different according to the substance of abuse. In light of evidence showing that cognitive impairment in drug users has a negative impact on treatment engagement and efficacy, we review substance-specific deficits on executive and memory function, and discuss possibilities to address these during treatment intervention.

Keywords

Cognition Executive function Substance abuse Amphetamines Opiates Cognitive enhancement 

Abbreviations

ACC

anterior cingulate cortex

ADHD

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

BIS-11

Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11

CANTAB

Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

CGT

Cambridge Gamble Task

CPT

Continuous Performance Test

IDED

Intra-Dimensional/Extra-Dimensional set-shifting test

IGT

Iowa Gambling Task

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

WCST

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Clinical Medicine, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences InstituteUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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