Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 73–95 | Cite as

A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Deficits in Adults with a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

  • Mario FioravantiEmail author
  • Olimpia Carlone
  • Barbara Vitale
  • Maria Elena Cinti
  • Linda Clare


This review identified 1275 studies examining cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, published between 1990 and 2003. Data from 113 studies (4365 patients and 3429 controls) were combined in a meta-analysis carried out on the five cognitive domains of IQ, memory, language, executive function, and attention. Studies were excluded where they lacked a suitable control group or failed to present complete information. In all five cognitive domains, analysis indicated a consistent trend for patients to perform more poorly than healthy controls, with significant heterogeneity across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were analyzed and a need to ensure more appropriate composition of patient and control groups and to adopt a more refined and methodologically correct, hypothesis-driven approach was identified.


schizophrenia cognitive deficits controlled studies memory 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andreasen, N. C., and Carpenter, W. T. (1993). Diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 19: 199–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arndt, S., Alliger, R. J., and Andreasen, N. C. (1991). The distinction of positive and negative symptoms: The failure of a two-dimensional model. Br. J. Psychiatry 158: 317–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Asarnow, R. F., and MacCrimmon, D. J. (1978). Residual performance deficit in clinically remitted schizophrenics: A marker of schizophrenia? J. Abnorm. Psychol. 87: 597–608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Braff, D. L., and Saccuzzo, D. P. (1982). Effect of antipsychotic medication on speed of information processing in schizophrenic patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 139: 1127–1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Callaway, E., and Naghdi, S. (1982). An information processing model for schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 39: 339–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark, L. A., Watson, D., and Reynolds, S. (1995). Diagnosis and classification of psychopathology: Challenges to the current system and future directions. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45: 121–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gold, J. M., and Harvey, P. D. (1993). Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 16: 295–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Harvey, P. D., Docherty, N. M., Serper, M. R., et al. (1990). Cognitive deficits and thought disorder: II. An 8-month follow up study. Schizophr. Bull. 16, 147–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Heinrichs, R. W., and Zarkanis, K. K. (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychol. 12: 426–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hemsley, D. R., and Richardson, P. H. (1980). Shadowing by context in schizophrenia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 168: 141–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Higgins, J. P. T., and Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat. Med. 21: 1539–1558.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kraepelin, E. (1971). Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia, R. E. Krieger, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  13. Lenzenweger, M. F., Dworkin, R. H., and Wethington, E. (1991). Examining the underlying structure of schizophrenic phenomenology: Evidence for a three-process model. Schizophr. Bull. 17: 515–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. McKenna, P. J., Tamlyn, D., Lund, C. E., et al. (1990). Amnesic syndrome in schizophrenia. Psychol. Med. 20: 967–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mirsky, A. F., Anthony, B. J., Duncan, C. C., et al. (1986). Analysis of the elements of attention: A neuropsychological approach. Neuropsychol. Rev. 2: 109–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Neuchterlein, K. H., and Dawson, M. E. (1984). Information processing and attentional functioning in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophr. Bull. 10: 160–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Neuchterlein, K. H., Dawson, M. E., Ventura, J., et al. (1991). Information-processing anomalies in the early course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr. Res. 5: 195–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Rossell, S. L., and David, A. S. (1997). The neuropsychology of schizophrenia: Recent trends. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 10: 26–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Seidman, L. J. (1983). Schizophrenia and brain dysfunction: An integration of recent neurodiagnostic findings. Psychol. Bull. 94: 195–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Surgulazde, S. A., and David, A. (1998). Cognitive neuropsychiatry and schizophrenia. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 11: 39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zarkanis, K. K., and Heinrichs, R. W. (1999). Schizophrenia and the frontal brain: A quantitative review. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 5: 556–566.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. References for the included studies Google Scholar
  23. Arango, C., Bartko, J. J., Gold, J. M., and Buchanan, R. W. (1999). Prediction of neuropsychological performance by neurological signs in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 1349–1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Besche, C., Passerieux, C., Segui, J., Sarfati, Y., Laurent, J. P., and Hardy-Baule, M. C. (1997). Syntatic and semantic processing in schizophrenic patients evaluated by lexical decision tasks. Neuropsychology 11: 498–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Braff, D. L., Heaton, R. K., Kuck, J., Cullum, M., Moranville, J., Grant, I., et al. (1991). The generalized pattern of neuropsychological deficits in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia with heterogeneous Wisconsin Card Sorting Test results. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 48: 891–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brankovic, S. B., and Paunovic, V. R. (1999). Reasoning under uncertainty in deluded schizophrenic patients: A longitudinal study. Eur. Psychiatry 14: 76–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brazo, P., Marié, R. M., Halbecq, I., Benali, K., Segard, L., Delamillieure, P., et al. (2002). Cognitive patterns in subtypes of schizophrenia. Eur. Psychiatry 17: 155–162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brébion, G., Gorman, J. M., Malaspina, D., Sharif, Z., and Amador, X. (2001). Clinical and cognitive factors associated with verbal memory task performance in patients with schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 158: 758–764.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Broerse, A., Holthausen, E. A. E., Van der Bosch, R. J., and den Boer, J. A. (2001). Does frontal normaly exist in schizophrenia? A saccadic eye movement study. Psychiatry Res. 103: 167–178.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Buckley, P. F., Moore, C., Long, H., Larkin, C., Thompson, P., Mulvany, F., et al. (1994). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the left temporal and frontal lobes in schizophrenia: Clinical, neurodevelopmental and cognitive correlates. Biol. Psychiatry 36: 792–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cadenhead, K. S., Perry, W., Shafer, K., and Braff, D. L. (1999). Cognitive functions in schizotypal personality disorders. Schizophr. Res. 37: 123–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cantor-Graae, E., Warkentin, S., and Nilsson, A. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment of schizophrenic patients during a psychotic episode: Persistent cognitive deficit? Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 91: 283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carter, C. S., Robertson, L. C., and Nordahl, T. E. (1992). Abnormal processing of relevant information in chronic schizophrenia: Selective enhancement of Stroop facilitation. Psychiatry Res. 41: 137–146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chey, J., Lee, J., Kim, Y. S., Kwon, S. M., and Shin, Y. M. (2002). Spatial working memory span, delayed response end executive function in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 110: 259–271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Clare, L., McKenna, P. J., Mortimer, A. M., and Baddeley, A. D. (1993). Memory in schizophrenia: What is impaired and what is preserved? Neuropsychologia 31: 1225–1241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohen, J. D., Barch, D. M., Carter, C., and Servan-Schriber, D. (1999). Context-processing deficits in schizophrenia: Converging evidence from three theoretically motivated cognitive tasks. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 108: 120–133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Conklin, H. M., Calkins, M. E., Anderson, C. W., Dinzeo, T. J., and Iacono, W. G. (2002). Recognition memory for faces in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives. Neuropsychol. 40: 2314–2324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Corrigan, P. W., Wallace, C. J., and Green, M. F. (1992). Deficits in social schemata in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 8: 129–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Crespo-Facorro, B., Paradiso, S., Andreasen, N. C., O'Leary, D. S., Watkins, G. L., Boles Ponto, L. L., et al. (1999). Recalling word lists reveals “Cognitive dysmetria” in schizophrenia: A positron emission tomography study. Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 386–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Danion, J. M., Meulemans, T., Kauffmann-Muller, F., and Vermaat, H. (2001). Intact implicit learning in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 158: 944–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Davidson, M., Harvey, P., Welsh, K. A., Powchik, P., Putnam, K. M., and Mohs, R. C. (1996). Cognitive functioning in late-life schizophrenia: A comparison of elderly schizophrenic patients and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Am. J. Psychiatry 153: 1274–1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Docherty, N. M., Gordinier, S. W., Hall, M. J., and Cutting, L. P. (1999). Communication disturbances in relatives beyond the age of risk for schizophrenia and their associations with symptoms in patients. Schizophr. Bull. 25: 851–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Earle Boyer, E. A., Serper, M. R., Davidson, M., and Harvey, P. D. (1991). Continuous performance tests in schizophrenic patients: Stimulus and medication effects on performance. Psychiatry Res. 37: 47–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Egan, M. F., Goldberg, T. E., Gscheidle, T., Weirich, M., Rawlings, R., Hyde, T. M., et al. (2001). Relative risk for cognitive impairments in siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 50: 98–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Elvevag, B., Duncan, J., and McKenna, P. J. (2000). The use of cognitive context in schizophrenia: An investigation. Psychol. Med. 30: 885–897.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Elvevag, B., Weinberger, D. R., and Goldberg, T. E. (2001). Short-Term Memory for serial order in schizophrenia: A detailed examination of error types. Neuropsychol. 15: 128–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Elvevag, B., Weinberger, D. R., Suter, J. C., and Goldberg, T. E. (2000). Continous performance test and schizophrenia: A test of stimulus-response compatibility, working memory, response readiness, or none of the above? Am. J. Psychiatry 157: 772–780.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Frith, C. D., Leary, J., Cahill, C., and Johnstone, E. C. (1991). Performance on psychological tests: Demographic and clinical correlates of the results of these tests. Br. J. Psychiatry 159 (Suppl 13): 26–29.Google Scholar
  49. Fucetola, R., Newcomer, J. W., Craft, S., and Melson, A. K. (1999). Age and dose-dependent glucose-induced increases in memory and attention in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 88: 1–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Giovannetti, T., Goldstein, R. Z., Schullery, M., Barr, W. B., and Bilde, R. M. (2003). Category fluency in first-episode schizophrenia. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 9: 384–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Glann, D. C., Cannon, T. D., Gur, R. E., Ragland, J. D., and Gur, R. C. (2000). Working memory constrains abstraction in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 47: 34–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gold, J. M., Bish, J. A., Iannone, V. N., Hobart, M. P., Queern, C. A., and Buchanan, R. W. (2000). Effects of contextual processing on visual conditional associative learning in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 48: 406–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Goldberg, T. E., Aloia, M. S., Gourovitch, M. L., Missar, D., Pickar, D., and Weinberger, D. R. (1998). Cognitive substrates of thought disorder I: The semantic system. Am. J. Psychiatry 155: 1671–1676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Goldberg, T. E., Ragland, J. D., Torrey, E. F., and Gold, J. M. (1990). Neuropsychological assessment of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 47: 1066–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Goldstein, J. M., Seidman, M. J., Goodman, J. M., Koren, D., Lee, H., Weintraub, S., et al. (1998). Are there sex differences in neuropsychological functions among patients with schizophrenia? Am. J. Psychiatry 155: 1358–1364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gooding, D. C., and Tallenti, K. A. (2002). Spatial working memory performance in patients with schizoaffetive psychosis versus schizophrenia: A tale of two disorders? Schizofr. Res. 53: 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gras-Vincendon, A., Danion, J. M., Grange, D., Bilik, M., Willard Schroeder, D., Sichel, J. P., et al. (1994). Explicit memory, repetition priming and cognitive skill learning in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 13: 117–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Grillon, C., Courchesne, E., Ameli, R., Geyer, M. A., and Braff, D. L. (1990). Increased distractibility in schizophrenic patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 47: 171–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gur, R. C., Ragland, J. D., and Moberg, P. J. (2001). Computerized Neurocognitive scanning: II. The profile of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacol. 25(5): 777–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hartman, M., Steketee, M. C., Silva, S., Lanning, K., and McCann, H. (2003). Working memory and schizophrenia: Evidence for slowed encoding. Schizophr. Res. 59: 99–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Harvey, P. D., Moriarty, P. J., Friedman, J. I., White, L., Parrella, M., Mohs, R. C., et al. (2000). Differential preservation of cognitive functions in geriatric patients with lifelong chronic schizophrenia: Less impairment in reading compared with other skill areas. Biol. Psychiatry 47: 962–968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Harvey, P. D., and Serper, M. R. (1990). Linguistic and cognitive failure in schizophrenia: A multivariate analysis. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 178: 487–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Haskins, B., Shutty, M. S., and Kellogg, E. (1995). Affect processing in chronically psychotic patients: Development of a reliable assessment tool. Schizophr. Res. 15: 291–297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hazlett, E. A. A., Buchsbaum, M. S., Jeu, L. A., Nenadic, I., Fleischman, M. B., Shihabuddin, L., et al. (2000). Hypofrontality in unmedicated schizophrenia patients studied with PET during performance of a serial verbal learning task. Schizophr. Res. 43: 33–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Heaton, R., Paulsen, J. S., Mc Adams, L. A., Kuck, J., Zisook, S., Braff, D., et al. (1994). Neuropsychological defìcits in schizophrenics: Relationship to age, chronicity, and dementia. Arch. Gen. Psych. 51: 469–476.Google Scholar
  66. Hirt, M., and Pithers, W. (1991). Selective attention and levels of coding in schizophrenia. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 30: 139–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hoff, A. L., Riordan, H., O'Donnell, D. W., Morris, L., and DeLisi, L. E. (1992). Neuropsychological functioning of first-episode schizophreniform patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 149: 898–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hoff, A. L., Wieneke, M., Faustman, W. O., Horon, R., Sakuma, M., Blankfield, H., et al. (1998). Sex differences in neuropsychological functioning of first-episode and chronically ill schizophrenic patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 155: 1437–1439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hoffman, R. E., Rapaport, J., Mazure, C. M., and Quinlan, D. M. (1999). Selective speech perception alterations in schizophrenic patients reporting hallucinated “voices.” Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 393–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hughes, C., Kumari, V., Soni, W., Das, M., Binneman, B., Drozd, S., et~al. (2002). Longitudinal study of symptoms and cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 59: 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Javitt, D. C., Doneshka, P., Grochowski, S., and Ritter, W. (1995). Impaired mismatch negativity generation reflects widespread dysfunction of working memory in schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 52: 550–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Javitt, D. C., Kiederman, E., Cienfuegos, A., and Shelley, A. (1999). Panmodal processing imprecision as a basis for dysfunction of transient memory storage systems in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 25: 763–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Joyce, E., Hutton, S., Mutsatsa, S., Gibbins, H., Webb, E., Paul, S., et al. (2002). Executive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia and relationship to duration of untreated psychosis: The west London study. Br. J. Psychiatry 181(43): 38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kiefer, M., Apel, A., and Weisbrog, M. (2002). Arithmetic fact retrieval and working memory in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 53: 219–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kim, M. S., Kang, S. S., Kang, D. H., Kim, J. J., and Kwon, J. S. (2003). Neuropsychological correlates of P300 abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res.-Neuroim. 123: 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kircker, T. T. J., Bulimoore, E. T., Brammer, M. J., Williams, S. C. R., Broome, M. R., Murray, R. M., et al. (2001). Differential activation of temporal cortex during sentence completion in schizophrenic patients with and without formal thought disorder. Schizophr. Res. 50: 27–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Krabbendam, L., Derix, M. M. A., Honig, A., Vuurman, E., Havermans, R., Wilmink, J. T., et al. (2000). Cognitive Performance in relation to MRI temporal lobe volume in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12: 251–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kravariti, E., Morris, R. G., Rabe-Hesketh, S., Murray, R. M., and Frangou, S. (2003). The Maudsley early onset schizophrenia study: Cognitive function in adolescents with recent onset schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 61: 137–148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kurachi, M., Matsui, M., Kiba, K., Suzuki, M., Tsunoda, M., and Yarnaguchi, N. (1994). Limited visual search on the WAIS Picture Competition Test in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 12: 75–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Landro, N. I., Orbeck, A. L., and Rund, B. R. (1993). Memory functioning in chronic and non-chronic schizophrenics, affectively disturbed patients and normal controls. Schizophr. Res. 10: 85–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lanser, M. G., Berger, H. J. C., Ellenbroek, B. A., Cools, A. R., and Zitman, F. G. (2002). Perseveration in schizophrenia: Failure to generate a plan and relationship with the psychomotor poverty subsyndrome. Psychiatry Res. 112: 13–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Laplante, L., and Everett, J. (1992). Inhibition through negative priming with Stroop stimuli in schizophrenia. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 31: 307–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. MacDonald, A. W., Pogue-Geile, M. F., Johnson, M. K., and Carter, C. S. (2003). A specific deficit in context processing in the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 60: 57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller, M. B., Chapman, J. B., Chapman, L. J., and Collins, J. (1995). Task difficulty and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 104: 251–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mirsky, A. F., Yardley, S. L., Jones, B. P., Walsh, D., and Kendler, K. S. (1995). Analysis of the attention deficit in schizophrenia: A study of patients and their relatives in Ireland. J. Psyc. Res. 29: 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Morice, R. (1990). Cognitive inflexibility and pre-frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia and mania. Br. J. Psychiatry 157: 50–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Moritz, S., Ruff, C., Wilke, U., Andresen, B., Krausz, M., and Naber, D. (2001). Negative priming in schizophrenia: Effects of masking and prime presentation time. Schizophr. Res. 48: 291–299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Morrison-Stewart, S. L., Williamson, P. C., Corning, W. C., Kutcher, S. P., and Merskey, H. (1991). Coherence of electroencephalography and aberrant functional organization of the brain in schizophrenic patients during activation tasks. Br. J. Psychiatry 159: 636–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Myles-Worsley, M., Johnston, W. A., and Wender, P. H. (1991). Spontaneous selective attention in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 39: 167–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Nestor, P. G., Akdag, S. J., O'Donnell, B. F., Niznikiewicz, M., Law, S., Shenton, M. E., et al. (1998). Word recall in schizophrenia: A connectionist model. Am. J. Psychiatry 155: 1685–1690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Neufeld, R. W. J., Mather, J. A., Merskey, H., and Russell, N. C. (1995). Multivariate structure of eye movement dysfunction distinguishing schizophrenia. Mult. Exp. Clin. Res. 11: 1–21.Google Scholar
  92. Ober, B. A., Vinogradov, S., and Shenaut, G. K. (1995). Semantic priming of category relations in schizophrenia. Neuropsychol. 9: 220–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ojeda, N., Ortuno, F., Arbizu, J., Lòpez, P., Martì-Kliment, J. M., Penuelas, I., et al. (2002). Functional neuroanatomy of sustained attention in schizophrenia: Contribution of parietal cortices. Hum. Brain Mapp. 17: 116–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Okada, A. (2002). Deficits of spatial working memory in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 53: 75–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Papageorgiou, C., Ventouras, E., Lykouras, L., Uzunoglu, N., and Christodoulou, G. N. (2003). Psychophisiological evidence for altered information processing in delusional misidentification syndromes. Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 27: 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Parellada, E., Catafau, A. M., Bernardo, M., Lomena, F., Gonzales-Monclus, E., and Setoain, J. (1994). Prefrontal dysfunction in young acute neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients: A resting and activation SPECT study. Psychiatry Res.-Neuroim. 55: 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Park, S., Holzman, P. S., and Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1995). Spatial working memory deficits in the relatives of schizophrenic patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 52: 821–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Paulsen, J. S., Heaton, R. K., and Jeste Dilip, V. (1994). Neuropsychological impairment in Tardive dyskinesia. Neuropsychology 8: 227–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Penn, D. L., Van Der Does, A. J. W., Spaulding, W. B., Garbin, C. P., Linszen, D., and Dingemans, P. (1993). Information processing and social cognitive problem solving in schizophrenia: Assessment of interrelationship and changes over time. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 181: 13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Perlstein, W. M., Carter, C. S., Barch, D. M., and Baird, J. W. (1998). The stroop task and attention deficits in schizophrenia: A critical evaluation of card and single-trial stroop methodologies. Neuropsychology 12: 414–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Perlstein, W. M., Carter, C. S., Noll, D. C., and Cohen, J. D. (2001). Relation of prefrontal cortex dysfunction to working memory and symptoms in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 158: 1105–1113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Perry, W., Keaton, R. K., Potterat, E., Roebuck, T., Minassian, A., and Braff, D. L. (2001). Working memory in schizophrenia: Transient “online” storage versus executive functioning. Schizophr. Bull. 27(1): 157–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Phillips, M. L., Senior, C., and David, A. S. (2000). Perception of threat in schizophrenics with persecutory delusions: An investigation using visual scan paths. Psychol. Med. 30: 157–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rief, W. (1991). Visual perceptual organization in schizophrenic patients. J. Clin. Psychol. 30: 359–366.Google Scholar
  105. Riley, E. M., McGovern, D., Mockler, D., Doku, V. C. K., Óceallaigh, S., Fannon, D. G., et al. (2000). Neuropsychological functioning in first-episode psychosis-evidence of specific deficits. Schizophr. Res. 43: 47–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ross, R. G., Harris, J. G., Olincy, A., and Radant, A. (2000). Eye movement task measures inhibition and spatial working memory in adults with schizophrenia, ADHD, and a normal comparison group. Psychiatry Res. 95: 35–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Baylé, M., Brunet, E., and Widlocher, D. (1999). Investigating theory of mind in schizophrenia: Influence of verbalization in disorganized and non-disorganized patients. Schizophr. Res. 37: 183–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sayers, M. D., Bellack, A. S., Wade, J. H., Bennet, M. E., and Fong, P. (1995). An empirical method for assessing social problem solving in schizophrenia. Behav. Modif. 19: 267–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Schmand, B., Brand, N., and Kuipers, T. (1992). Procedural learning of cognitive and motor skills in psychotic patients. Schizophr. Res. 8: 157–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schreiber, H., Rothmeier, J., Becker, W., Jurgens, R., Born, J., Stolz Born, G., et al. (1995). Comparative assessment of saccadic eye movements, psychomotor and cognitive performance in schizophrenics, their first-degree relatives and control subjects. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 91: 195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schuepbach, D., Keshavan, M. S., Kmiec, J. A., and Sweeney, J. A. (2002). Negative symptom resolution and improvements in specific cognitive deficits after acute treatment in first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 53: 249–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Schwartz, B. L., Deutsch, L. H., Cohen, C., Warden, D., and Deutsch, S. I. (1991). Memory for temporal order in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 29, 329–339.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sereno, A. B., and Holzman, P. S. (1995). Antisaccades and smooth pursuit eye movements in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 37: 394–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sereno, A. B., and Holzrnan, P. S. (1996). Spatia1 selective attention in schizophrenic, affective disorder, and normal subjects. Schizophr. Res. 20: 33–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Shelley, A., Grochowski, S., Lieberman, J. A., and Javitt, D. C. (1996). Premature disinhibition of P3 generation in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 39: 714–719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Silver, H., Feldman, P., Bilker, W., and Gur, R. C. (2003). Working memory deficit as a core neuropsychological dysfunction in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 160: 1809–1916.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Stirling, J. D., Hellewell, J. S. E., and Ndlovu, D. (2001). Self-monitoring dysfunction and the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychopatology 34: 198–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stone, M., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Stebbins, G. T., and Sullivan, E. V. (1998). Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 12: 278–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Stratta, P., Daneluzzo, E., Prosperini, P., Bustini, M., Marinangeli, M. G., and Rossi, A. (1999). Spatial working memory assessment by a visual-manual delayed response task: A controlled study in schizophrenia. Neurosci. Lett. 275: 9–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Stratta, P., Prosperini, P., Daneluzzo, E., Bustini, M., and Rossi, A. (2001). Educational level and age influence spatial working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance differently: A controlled study in schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Res. 102: 39–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Strik, W. K., Dierks, T., Franzek, E., Stober, G., and Maurer, K. (1993). P300 asymmetries in schizophrenia revisited with reference-independent methods. Psychiatry Res.-Neuroim. 55: 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sullivan, E. V., Shear, P. K., Zipursky, R. B., Sagar, H. J., and Pfefferbaum, A. (1994). A deficit profile of executive, memory, and motor functions in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 36: 641–653.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Tek, C., Gold, J., Blaxton, T., Wilk, C., McMahon, R. P., and Buchamann, R. W. (2002). Visual perceptual and working memory impairments in schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 59: 146–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Tendolkar, I., Ruhrmann, S., Brockhaus, A., Pukrop, R., and Klosterkötter, J. (2002). Remembering or knowing: Electrophysiological evidence for an episodic memory deficit in schizophrenia. Psychol. Med. 32: 1261–1271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Thomas, P., Kearney, G., Napier, E., Ellis, E., Leudar, I., and Johnston, M. (1996). Speech and language in first onset psychosis: Differences between people with schizophrenia, mania and controls. Br. J. Psychiatry 168: 337–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Van Den Bosch, R. J., Van Asma, M. J. O., Rombouts, R., and Lowerens, J. W. (1992). Coping style and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenic patients. Br. J. Psychiatry 161: 123–128.Google Scholar
  127. Verdoux, H., Magnin, E., and Bourgeois, M. (1995). Neuroleptic effects on neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 14: 133–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Vinogradov, S., Kirkland, J., Poole, J. H., Drexler, M., Ober, B. A., and Shenaut, G. K. (2002). Both processing speed and semantic memory organization predict verbal fluency in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 59: 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Weickert, T. W., Goldberg, T. E., Gold, J. M., Bigelow, L. B., Egan, M. F., and Weinberger, D. R. (2000). Cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia displaying preserved and compromised intellect. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 907–913.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Weiss, A. P., Dodson. C. S., Goff, D. C., Shacter, D. L., and Heckers, S. (2002). Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 159: 1506–1513.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Weiss, K. M., Chapman, H. A., Strauss, M. E., and Gilmore, G. C. (1992). Visual information decoding deficits in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 44: 203–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wexler, B. E., Stevens, A. A., Bowers, A. A., Semyak, M. J., and Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1998). Word and tone working memory deficits in schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 55: 1093–1096.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wilk, C. M., Gold, J. M., Batko, J. J., Dickerson, F., Fenton, W. S., Knable, M., et al. (2002). Test–retest stability of the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 159: 838–844.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Woonings, F. M. J., Appelo, M. T., Fluiter, H., Slooff, C. J., and Van der Bosh, R. J. (2002). Learning (potential) and social functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 59: 287–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zorrilla, L. T. E., Heaton, R. K., McAdams, L. A., Zisook, S., Harris, M. J., and Jeste, D. V. (2000). Cross-Sectional Study of older outpatients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects: No differences in age-related cognitive decline. Am. J. Psychiatry 157: 1324–1326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Zuffante, P., Leonard, C. M., Kuldau, J. M., Bauer, R. M., Doty, E. G., and Bilder, R. M. (2001). Working memory deficits in schizophrenia are not necessarily specific or associated with MRI-base estimated of area 46 volumes. Psychiatry Res.-Neuroim. 108: 187–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Fioravanti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olimpia Carlone
    • 1
  • Barbara Vitale
    • 1
  • Maria Elena Cinti
    • 1
  • Linda Clare
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychol. Med.University of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly
  2. 2.School of PsychologyUniversity of Wales BangorBangorUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations