Involvement of PARP-1/AIF Signaling Pathway in Protective Effects of Gualou Guizhi Decoction Against Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury-Induced Apoptosis
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Cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)/apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) signaling pathway-mediated apoptosis is one of the non-caspase-dependent cell death programs that are widely present in neurological diseases such as stroke. In our study, we aimed to conduct further research on the effects of Gualou Guizhi decoction (GLGZD) on the PARP-1/AIF signaling pathway in cell apoptosis after ischemia–reperfusion injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The results showed that GLGZD administration for 7 days significantly ameliorated MCAO-induced neurological damage, limb paralysis and the pathological state of the ischemic cortex. GLGZD exerted its effects by significantly reducing the volume of ischemic cerebral infarction, increasing the number of Nissl-positive cells, and reducing neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that GLGZD significantly inhibited the total protein expression of PARP-1, PAR, AIF and endonuclease G (Endo G) in the ischemic cortex and significantly increased the total protein expression of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70). On the one hand, the expression of PARP-1, AIF and Endo G protein in the nucleus significantly decreased while the expression of PAR nucleoprotein significantly upregulated. On the other hand, compared with the MCAO model group, the GLGZD-treated group showed a significantly reduced protein expression of PAR in mitochondria and significantly increased protein expression of mitochondrial AIF and Endo G. It was concluded that GLGZD had good therapeutic effects in MCAO model rats. These effects were closely related to GLGZD-mediated inhibition of ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis by regulation of protein expression and translocation in the PARP-1/AIF signaling pathway.
KeywordsGualou Guizhi decoction Focal cerebral ischemia Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 Poly(ADP-ribose) Apoptosis-inducing factor
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81873031) and the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Science and Technology Department (Grant No. 2017J01837).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
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