Dicoumarol Inhibits Multidrug Resistance Protein 1-Mediated Export Processes in Cultured Primary Rat Astrocytes
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Dicoumarol is frequently used as inhibitor of the detoxifying enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In order to test whether dicoumarol may also affect the cellular glutathione (GSH) metabolism, we have exposed cultured primary astrocytes to dicoumarol and investigated potential effects of this compound on the cell viability as well as on the cellular and extracellular contents of GSH and its metabolites. Incubation of astrocytes with dicoumarol in concentrations of up to 100 µM did not acutely compromise cell viability nor was any GSH consumption or GSH oxidation to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) observed. However, unexpectedly dicoumarol inhibited the cellular multidrug resistance protein (Mrp) 1-dependent export of GSH in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with half-maximal effects observed at low micromolar concentrations of dicoumarol. Inhibition of GSH export by dicoumarol was not additive to that observed for the known Mrp1 inhibitor MK571. In addition, dicoumarol inhibited also the Mrp1-mediated export of GSSG during menadione-induced oxidative stress and the export of the GSH–bimane-conjugate (GS–B) that had been generated in the cells after exposure to monochlorobimane. Half-maximal inhibition of the export of Mrp1 substrates was observed at dicoumarol concentrations of around 4 µM (GSH and GSSG) and 30 µM (GS–B). These data demonstrate that dicoumarol strongly affects the GSH metabolism of viable cultured astrocytes by inhibiting Mrp1-mediated export processes and identifies for the first time Mrp1 as additional cellular target of dicoumarol.
KeywordsAstrocytes Drug export Glutathione GSSG Mrp NQO1
Christian Arend and Ralf Dringen would like to acknowledge the substantial financial support of the Tönjes-Vagt-Foundation.
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Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
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