Distinct Cytokine and Chemokine Expression in Plasma and Calpeptin-Treated PBMCs of a Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patient: A Case Report
The cytokine/chemokine expression signature of a 60-year-old African American male with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) was analyzed using patient blood samples obtained from two separate visits to the clinic. Thirty-six different cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were detected in the plasma of the RRMS patient using a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results indicated that at least ten of these factors with a concentration of > 100 pg/mL are identified as pro-inflammatory. Calpain inhibition led to an anti-inflammatory effect, as indicated by a decrease in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as GM-CSF, IFNγ, and IL-17A, and a relative increase in two of the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13 and IL-4) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated with anti-CD3/CD28. Overall, these results suggest that the unique cytokine/chemokine pattern observed in the plasma of the RRMS patient can be used as a prognostic marker and calpain inhibition may be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for treating excessive inflammatory response specific to RRMS patients.
KeywordsRelapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis Calpain Cytokines Chemokines Plasma Peripheral blood mononuclear cells
This work was supported in part by funding Veterans Administration (1I01BX002349-01); Department of Neurosurgery, MUSC, and MUSC-CTSA program; and the South Carolina State Spinal Cord Research Fund (SCIRF-2015P-01, SCIRF-2015P-04, SCIRF-2015-I-01, SCIRF-2016 I-03). Contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the SCIRF and do not imply endorsement by the funding agency.
RC wrote the manuscript and drew the Figures and Tables. MC performed the experiments. DM coordinated patient study, collected samples, and edited the manuscript. AH conceived and designed the experiments and the manuscript. NB conceived and designed the manuscript. AH and NB also edited the manuscript. EK provided patient samples and case history. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.
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