The Administration of Cadmium for 2, 3 and 4 Months Causes a Loss of Recognition Memory, Promotes Neuronal Hypotrophy and Apoptosis in the Hippocampus of Rats
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal and classified as a carcinogen whose exposure could affect the function of the central nervous system. There are studies that suggest that Cd promotes neurodegeneration in different regions of the brain, particularly in the hippocampus. It is proposed that its mechanism of toxicity maybe by an oxidative stress pathway, which modifies neuronal morphology and causes the death of neurons and consequently affecting cognitive tasks. However, this mechanism is not yet clear. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Cd administration on recognition memory for 2, 3 and 4 months, neuronal morphology and immunoreactivity for caspase-3 and 9 in rat hippocampi. The results show that the administration of Cd decreased recognition memory. Likewise, it caused the dendritic morphology of the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus to decrease with respect to the time of administration of this heavy metal. In addition, we observed a reduction in the density of dendritic spines as well as an increase in the immunoreactivity of caspase-3 and 9 in the same hippocampal regions of the animals treated with Cd. These results suggest that Cd affects the structure and function of the neurons of the hippocampus, which contribute to the deterioration of recognition memory. Our results suggest that the exposure to Cd represents a critical health problem, which if not addressed quickly, could cause much more serious problems in the quality of life of the human population, as well as in the environment in which they develop.
KeywordsThe novel object recognition CA1–CA3–DG hippocampus Dendritic spines Caspases Cell death Golgi–Cox
We want to thank Dr. Francisco Ramos Collazo for his help with the animal care. ST, JG, EB, AM-R, AHS, GF, AD acknowledge the “Sistema Nacional de Investigadores” of Mexico for membership. Thanks to Professor Thomas Edwards PhD., for editing the English language text.
AD and ST designed the study and wrote the protocol. GP, UPR, RV-R, and AM-R performed the experiments. AD, ST, GF, EB, JG managed the literature searches and analysis, AHS undertook the statistical analysis. AD and ST wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All contributing authors have approved the final manuscript. JLMP participated in the managed the literature searches and analysis and undertook the statistical analysis.
Funding for this study was provided by grants from VIEP-BUAP Grant (No. DIFA-NAT17-I) to AD, (No. TEMS-NAT17-I) to ST and PAPIIT-UNAM (IN214117) to JG. None of the funding institutions had any further role in the study design, the collection of data, analyses, and interpretation of data, writing of the report or in the decision to submit the paper for publication and interpretation of data, writing of the report or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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