Neurochemical Research

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 1555–1570 | Cite as

Nebulization of RNS60, a Physically-Modified Saline, Attenuates the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

  • Susanta Mondal
  • Suresh B. Rangasamy
  • Supurna Ghosh
  • Richard L. Watson
  • Kalipada PahanEmail author
Original Paper


Developing a new and effective therapeutic approach against multiple sclerosis (MS) is always an important area of research. RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60, administered through intraperitoneal injection, ameliorated clinical symptoms and disease progression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Since the intravenous route is not preferred for treating a chronic condition, we tested if nebulization of RNS60 could attenuate the disease process of adoptively-transferred EAE in mice. Although we could not directly image RNS60 after nebulization, nebulized Alexa680 reached spleen, spinal cord and different parts of the brain. Nebulization of RNS60 starting from the acute phase attenuated clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female SJL/J mice. RNS60 nebulization also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood–brain and blood–spinal cord barriers, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the CNS of EAE mice. On the immunomodulatory front, nebulization of RNS60 to EAE mice led to the enrichment of anti-autoimmune regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppression of autoimmune Th17 cells. Together, these results suggest that nebulization of RNS60 may be used to control aberrant immune responses in MS and other autoimmune disorders.


Physically-modified saline Nebulization EAE Immunomodulation Regulatory T cells 



This study was supported by Revalesio Corporation (Tacoma, WA).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanta Mondal
    • 1
  • Suresh B. Rangasamy
    • 1
  • Supurna Ghosh
    • 2
  • Richard L. Watson
    • 2
  • Kalipada Pahan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SciencesRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Revalesio CorporationTacomaUSA

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