Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginsenoside-Rh2 Inhibits LPS-Induced Activation of Microglia and Overproduction of Inflammatory Mediators Via Modulation of TGF-β1/Smad Pathway
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Microglia activation plays an important role in neuroinflammation and contributes to several neurological disorders. Hence, inhibition of both microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines may lead to the effective treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that GRh2 inhibited the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and prevented the LPS-induced neurotoxicity in microglia cells. GRh2 significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide production, and tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in LPS-induced activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GRh2 (20 and 50 μM) significantly increased TGF-β1 expression and reduced the expression of Smad. These results suggest that GRh2 effectively inhibits microglia activation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulating the TGF-β1/Smad pathway.
KeywordsGRh2 Lipopolysaccharide BV-2 microglia cells TGF-β1/Smad
Inducible nitric oxide synthesis
Tumor necrosis factor-α
Transforming growth factor-β
This research was supported by a grant from the Oriental Medicine R&D Project, Ministry of Health, Welfare and Family Affairs (B100049), and the SRD II Scholarship Program of Dongguk University.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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