Neurochemical Research

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 2544–2556 | Cite as

Critical Evaluation of the Changes in Glutamine Synthetase Activity in Models of Cerebral Stroke

  • Thomas M. Jeitner
  • Kevin Battaile
  • Arthur J. L. Cooper
Original Paper

Abstract

The following article addresses some seemingly paradoxical observations concerning cerebral glutamine synthetase in ischemia–reperfusion injury. In the brain, this enzyme is predominantly found in astrocytes and catalyzes part of the glutamine-glutamate cycle. Glutamine synthetase is also thought to be especially sensitive to inactivation by the oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals generated during strokes. Despite this apparent sensitivity, glutamine synthetase specific activity is elevated in the affected tissues during reperfusion. Given the central role of the glutamine-glutamate cycle in the brain, we sought to resolve these conflicting observations with the view of providing an alternative perspective for therapeutic intervention in stroke.

Keywords

Brain Glutamine synthetase Ischemia–reperfusion Oxidative stress Stroke 

Abbreviations

EPR

Electron paramagnetic resonance

GABA

γ-Aminobutyrate

MSO

l-Methionine-S,R-sulfoximine

Notes

Acknowledgments

Part of the work described in this review was supported by NIH grant DK 16739 (AJLC) and the Theresa Patnode Santmann Foundation (TMJ).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas M. Jeitner
    • 1
  • Kevin Battaile
    • 2
  • Arthur J. L. Cooper
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyNew York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA
  2. 2.Argonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

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