Neurochemical Research

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 2570–2582 | Cite as

Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

  • Ralf Dringen
  • Maria Brandmann
  • Michaela C. Hohnholt
  • Eva-Maria Blumrich
Overview

Abstract

Astrocytes have a pivotal role in brain as partners of neurons in homeostatic and metabolic processes. Astrocytes also protect other types of brain cells against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species and are considered as first line of defence against the toxic potential of xenobiotics. A key component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which generate GSH conjugates that are efficiently exported from the cells by multidrug resistance proteins. Moreover, GSH reacts with the reactive endogenous carbonyls methylglyoxal and formaldehyde to intermediates which are substrates of detoxifying enzymes. In this article we will review the current knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes.

Keywords

Brain cells Conjugation GSH Peroxidases Oxidative stress S-transferases 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf Dringen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Brandmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michaela C. Hohnholt
    • 3
  • Eva-Maria Blumrich
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Biomolecular Interactions BremenUniversity of BremenBremenGermany
  2. 2.Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable TechnologiesBremenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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