Neurochemical Research

, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 1661–1674

Biomarker Studies in Multiple Sclerosis: From Proteins to Noncoding RNAs

  • Xiao-Fang Liu
  • Yue-Bei Luo
  • Zhao-Hui Luo
  • Huan Yang


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroimmunological disorder characterized by central nervous system demyelination, axonal injury and loss. Considering the complexity of its aetiopathogenesis, early diagnosis of MS and individualized management are challenging in clinical practice. As the pathophysiologic and pharmacological indicators, studies on biomarkers in MS are useful for early prediction and diagnosis, monitoring of disease activity and predicting treatment response. In this review, we will summarize recent development of biomarker studies in MS from protein molecules to noncoding RNAs.


Multiple sclerosis Biomarker Cytokine Antibody MicroRNA Long noncoding RNA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-Fang Liu
    • 1
  • Yue-Bei Luo
    • 1
  • Zhao-Hui Luo
    • 1
  • Huan Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Xiangya HospitalCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

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