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Neurochemical Research

, Volume 39, Issue 6, pp 1016–1031 | Cite as

From FMRP Function to Potential Therapies for Fragile X Syndrome

  • Ferzin Sethna
  • Changjong Moon
  • Hongbing Wang
Overview

Abstract

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Most FXS cases occur due to the expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeats in the 5′ un-translated region of FMR1, which leads to hypermethylation and in turn silences the expression of FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein). Numerous studies have demonstrated that FMRP interacts with both coding and non-coding RNAs and represses protein synthesis at dendritic and synaptic locations. In the absence of FMRP, the basal protein translation is enhanced and not responsive to neuronal stimulation. The altered protein translation may contribute to functional abnormalities in certain aspects of synaptic plasticity and intracellular signaling triggered by Gq-coupled receptors. This review focuses on the current understanding of FMRP function and potential therapeutic strategies that are mainly based on the manipulation of FMRP targets and knowledge gained from FXS pathophysiology.

Keywords

Fragile X syndrome FMR1 FMRP Gq-coupled receptors LTD LTP Mouse model RNA-binding protein Translation Therapeutic development 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by research Grants from the National Institute of Health (MH093445) and FRAXA Research Foundation. I (Hongbing Wang) would like to pay special thanks to Dr. Richard Olsen who provided valuable advice and guidance and shared his enthusiasm in science during my graduate study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Genetics ProgramMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Medical InstituteChonnam National UniversityGwangjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  4. 4.Neuroscience ProgramMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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