Neuroprotective Evaluation of Tiliaamericana and Annonadiversifolia in the Neuronal Damage Induced by Intestinal Ischemia
Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia are plants widely distributed in Mexico and sold in markets for their medicinal properties on the central nervous system (CNS) including possible neuroprotection. Pharmacological studies have corroborated CNS activities due to flavonoid constituents, but evidence of their neuroprotector effects are lacking. This study was conducted to test aqueous and organic extracts of these two plants for neuroprotective effects in a novel experimental model of intestinal ischemia in situ. T. americana and A. diversifolia aqueous and organic extracts were administrated to guinea pigs at an oral dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were anesthetized and intestinal ischemia in situ was induced by clamping for 80 min selected branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Ischemic segments placed in an in vitro organ bath were stimulated electrically (0.3 Hz frequency, 3.0 ms duration, 14 V intensity) and chemically (ACh; 1 × 10−9 to 1×10−5 M). Neuroprotection was considered present when the depressed contractile response of the ischemic tissue to electrical stimulation was normalized in the treated animals. Results showed that pretreatment with the T. americana hexane and aqueous extracts, but not with those from A. diversifolia, significantly improved responses of the ischemic tissue. These results suggest that T. americana possesses neuroprotective effects against neuronal damage induced by ischemia, and that flavonoids as well as non-polar constituents are involved. Our study supports the use of this plant in folk medicine and suggests its possible effectiveness for stroke prevention.
KeywordsA. diversifolia Guinea-pig ileum Intestinal ischemia Neuroprotection T. americana
This study was supported by Grants from Program to Support Research Projects and Technological Innovation (PAPIIT, IN201713), National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT, 80811) and National Institute of Psychiatry (INP-NC093280). PhD. G.E. Angeles-López thankful a fellowship from General Direction of Academic of Personnel Matters of National University of Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM, 070/2012). We are thankful to Mr. Oscar Ramirez for his technical assistance.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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