Neurochemical Research

, Volume 38, Issue 8, pp 1616–1623 | Cite as

Microinjection of Adenosine into the Hypothalamic Ventrolateral Preoptic Area Enhances Wakefulness via the A1 Receptor in Rats

  • Jin Zhang
  • Dou Yin
  • Fang Wu
  • Gongliang Zhang
  • Chuanwei Jiang
  • Zhen Li
  • Liecheng WangEmail author
  • Kai WangEmail author
Original Paper


Adenosine (AD) is a nucleic acid component that is critical for energy metabolism in the body. AD modulates numerous neural functions in the central nervous system, including the sleep-wake cycle. Previous studies have indicated that the A1 receptor (A1R) or A2A receptor (A2AR) may mediate the effects of AD on the sleep-wake cycle. The hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) initiates and maintains normal sleep. Histological studies have shown A1R are widely expressed in brain tissue, whereas A2AR expression is limited in the brain and undetectable in the VLPO. We hypothesize therefore, that AD modulates the sleep-wake cycle through A1R in the VLPO. In the present study, bilateral microinjection of AD or an AD transporter inhibitor (s-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine) into the VLPO of rats decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. An A1R agonist (N6-cyclohexyladenosine) produced similar effects in the VLPO. Microinjection of an A1R antagonist (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine) into the VLPO enhanced NREM sleep and diminished AD-induced wakefulness. These data indicate that AD enhances wakefulness in the VLPO via A1R in rats.


Adenosine Ventrolateral preoptic area Sleep Rat 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81071075 and 81271217), Doctoral Program Foundation of Institutions of Higher Education of China (20093420120004) and Plan for National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of Anhui Medical University (GJJQ-0801).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jin Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dou Yin
    • 2
  • Fang Wu
    • 2
  • Gongliang Zhang
    • 2
  • Chuanwei Jiang
    • 3
  • Zhen Li
    • 2
  • Liecheng Wang
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kai Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyThe First Hospital of Anhui Medical UniversityHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical ScienceAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, College of Traditional Chinese MedicineAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

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