Neurochemical Research

, Volume 38, Issue 8, pp 1580–1589

Glia Maturation Factor Expression in Hippocampus of Human Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Deirdre Stolmeier
  • Ramasamy Thangavel
  • Poojya Anantharam
  • Mohammad M. Khan
  • Duraisamy Kempuraj
  • Asgar Zaheer
Original Paper


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of neuropathological lesions containing amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration. Hippocampus is one of the earliest and severely damaged areas in AD brain. Glia maturation factor (GMF), a known proinflammatory molecule is up-regulated in AD. Here, we have investigated the expression and distribution of GMF in relation to the distribution of APs and NFTs in the hippocampus of AD brains. Our immunohistochemical results showed GMF is expressed specifically in the vicinity of high density of APs and NFTs in the hippocampus of AD patients. Moreover, reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounds the APs and NFTs. We further demonstrate that GMF immunoreactive glial cells were increased at the sites of Tau containing NFTs and APs of hippocampus in AD brains. In conclusion, up-regulated expression of GMF in the hippocampus, and the co-localization of GMF and thioflavin-S stained NFTs and APs suggest that GMF may play important role in the pathogenesis of AD.


Alzheimer’s disease Amyloid plaques Glial fibrillary acidic protein Glia maturation factor Hippocampus Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deirdre Stolmeier
    • 1
  • Ramasamy Thangavel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Poojya Anantharam
    • 1
  • Mohammad M. Khan
    • 1
  • Duraisamy Kempuraj
    • 1
    • 2
  • Asgar Zaheer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Carver College of MedicineUniversity of Iowa Hospitals and ClinicsIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Veterans Affair Health Care SystemIowa CityUSA

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