Neurochemical Research

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 218–225

Enhanced Expression of Glia Maturation Factor Correlates with Glial Activation in the Brain of Triple Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mice

  • Smita Zaheer
  • Ramasamy Thangavel
  • Yanghong Wu
  • Mohammad Moshahid Khan
  • Duraisamy Kempuraj
  • Asgar Zaheer
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11064-012-0913-z

Cite this article as:
Zaheer, S., Thangavel, R., Wu, Y. et al. Neurochem Res (2013) 38: 218. doi:10.1007/s11064-012-0913-z

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that glia maturation factor (GMF), a brain specific protein, isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory, induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the central nervous system. We also reported that the up-regulation of GMF in astrocytes leads to the destruction of neurons suggesting a novel pathway of GMF-mediated cytotoxicity of brain cells, and implicated its involvement in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we examined the expressions of GMF in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTg-AD) mice. Our results show a 13-fold up-regulation of GMF and 8–12-fold up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and C–X–C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10/IP-10) mRNA as determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in the brain of 3xTg-AD mice as compared to non-transgenic (Non-Tg) mice. In conclusion, the increase in GMF and cytokine/chemokine expression was correlated with reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein positive astrocytes and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive microglia in 3xTg-AD mice.

Keywords

Glia maturation factor (GMF) Neuro inflammation Reactive astrocytes Cytokine/chemokine Transgenic mouse Alzheimer’s disease (AD) 

Abbreviations

CCL2

Chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2

CXCL10

C–X–C motif chemokine 10

CNS

Central nervous system

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

GFAP

Glial fibriallary acidic protein

IFN-γ

Interferon-gamma

IL-1

Interleukin-1

Non-Tg

Non-transgenic mice

GMF

Glia maturation factor

Real-time PCR

Real-time polymerase chain reaction

3xTg-AD mice

Triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Smita Zaheer
    • 2
  • Ramasamy Thangavel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yanghong Wu
    • 2
  • Mohammad Moshahid Khan
    • 2
  • Duraisamy Kempuraj
    • 1
    • 2
  • Asgar Zaheer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Veterans Affair Health Care SystemIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyThe University of IowaIowa CityUSA

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