Phenelzine (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor) Increases Production of Nitric Oxide and Proinflammatory Cytokines via the NF-κB Pathway in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Microglia Cells
- 471 Downloads
Phenelzine is a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor that is used in patients with depression. It is also well known that nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors show preclinical antidepressant-like properties, which suggests that NO is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. The purpose of this study was to determine if phenelzine affects the production of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in activated microglia cells. BV-2 microglia cells and primary microglia cells were cultured in DMEM and DMEM/F12 and then cells were treated with LPS or LPS plus phenelzine for 24 h. The culture medium was collected for determination of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 and cells were harvested by lysis buffer for Western blot analysis. Phenelzine increased the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in BV-2 microglia cells. It is also confirmed that phenelzine increased the levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-activated primary microglia cells. Phenelzine increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB by phosphorylation of IκB-α in LPS-activated microglia cells. These findings suggest that high doses of phenelzine could aggravate inflammatory responses in microglia cells that are mediated by NO and TNF-α.
KeywordsPhenelzine Nitric oxide Microglia Tumor necrosis factor-α NF-κB
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government [MEST] (No. 2011-0006220).
- 9.Ehde DM, Bombardier CH (2005) Depression in persons with multiple sclerosis. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 16:437–448, ixGoogle Scholar
- 11.Katon W, Sullivan MD (1990) Depression and chronic medical illness. J Clin Psychiatry 51Suppl:3–11 (discussion 12–14)Google Scholar