Neurochemical Research

, Volume 37, Issue 8, pp 1761–1767 | Cite as

Total Antioxidant Status Correlates with Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Recurrent Depressive Disorder

  • Monika Talarowska
  • Piotr Gałecki
  • Michael Maes
  • Kinga Bobińska
  • Edward Kowalczyk
Original Paper


Depressive disorder is a multifactorial diseases, that one of the typical feature are cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS) in patients with recurrent depressive disorder (rDD) and to define relationship between plasma levels of TAS and the cognitive performance. Design and methods: the study comprised 74 subjects: patients with rDD (n = 45) and healthy subjects (n = 29). Cognitive function assessment was based on: Trail Making Test, The Stroop Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Statistically significant differences were found in the intensity of depression symptoms, measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) on therapy onset versus the examination results after 8 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). The level of TAS was substantially higher in patients with rDD (p = 0.01). For rDD patients, elevated TAS levels were associated with worse cognitive test performance. The higher was the concentration of plasma TAS, the greater was the severity of depressive symptoms measured by HDRS before and after pharmacotherapy. (1) Higher concentration of plasma TAS in rDD patients is associated with the severity of depressive symptoms. (2) Elevated levels of plasma TAS are related to impairment of short-term declarative memory, long-term declarative-memory, verbal fluency and working memory.


Depression Total antioxidant status Cognitive impairment Inflammation 



This research was supported by scientific research grant National Science Center No. 2011/01/D/HS6/05484.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monika Talarowska
    • 1
  • Piotr Gałecki
    • 1
  • Michael Maes
    • 2
  • Kinga Bobińska
    • 1
  • Edward Kowalczyk
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Adult PsychiatryMedical University of LodzLodzPoland
  2. 2.Maes Clinics @ TRIAPiyavate HospitalBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyMedical University of LodzLodzPoland

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