Neurochemical Research

, 36:2116 | Cite as

Expression of Cholinergic, Insulin, Vitamin D Receptors and GLUT 3 in the Brainstem of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats: Effect of Treatment with Vitamin D3

  • T. Peeyush Kumar
  • Jes Paul
  • Sherin Antony
  • C. S. PauloseEmail author
Original Paper


Complications arising from diabetes mellitus include cognitive deficits, neurophysiological and structural changes in the brain. The current study investigated the expression of cholinergic, insulin, Vitamin D receptor and GLUT 3 in the brainstem of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Radioreceptor binding assays and gene expression were done in the brainstem of male Wistar rats. Our results showed that Bmax of total muscarinic, muscarinic M3 receptors was increased and muscarinic M1 receptor was decreased in diabetic rats compared to control. A significant increase in gene expression of muscarinic M3, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine, insulin, Vitamin D3 receptors, acetylcholine esterase, choline acetyl transferase and GLUT 3 were observed in the brainstem of diabetic rats. Immunohistochemistry studies of muscarinic M1, M3 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors confirmed the gene expression at protein level. Vitamin D3 and insulin treatment reversed diabetes-induced alterations to near control. This study provides an evidence that diabetes can alter the expression of cholinergic, insulin, Vitamin D receptors and GLUT 3 in brainstem. We found that Vitamin D3 treatment could modulate the Vitamin D receptors and plays a pivotal role in maintaining the glucose transport and expressional level of cholinergic receptors in the brainstem of diabetic rats. Thus, our results suggest a therapeutic role of Vitamin D3 in managing neurological disorders associated with diabetes.


Diabetes Brainstem Cholinergic receptors Vitamin D3 Insulin and GLUT 3 



This work was supported by grants from DST, DBT, ICMR, Govt. of India, and KSCSTE, Govt. of Kerala, to Dr. C. S. Paulose. Peeyush Kumar. T thanks the Department of Science and Technology, India for SRF and Dr. Ranjit Parhar, Cell Biology-Cardio Vascular unit, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre for his valuable advice in the preparation of manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Peeyush Kumar
    • 1
  • Jes Paul
    • 2
  • Sherin Antony
    • 2
  • C. S. Paulose
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Cell Biology-Cardio Vascular Unit, Department of Biological and Medical ResearchKing Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CentreRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Molecular Neurobiology and Cell Biology Unit, Centre for NeuroscienceCochin University of Science and TechnologyCochinIndia

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