Neurochemical Research

, Volume 36, Issue 7, pp 1186–1197 | Cite as

Role of Inositol 1,4,5-Trishosphate Receptors in Pathogenesis of Huntington’s Disease and Spinocerebellar Ataxias

Original Paper

Abstract

Huntington’s disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorders. HD is caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the amino-terminal region of a protein huntingtin (Htt) and primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). Many SCAs are caused by polyQ-expansion in ataxin proteins and primarily affect cerebellar Purkinje cells. The reasons for neuronal dysfunction and death in HD and SCAs remain poorly understood and no cure is available for the patients. Our laboratory discovered that mutant huntingtin, ataxin-2 and ataxin-3 proteins specifically bind to the carboxy-terminal region of the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1), an intracellular Ca2+ release channel. Moreover, we found that association of mutant huntingtin or ataxins with IP3R1 causes sensitization of IP3R1 to activation by IP3 in planar lipid bilayers and in neuronal cells. These results suggested that deranged neuronal Ca2+ signaling might play an important role in pathogenesis of HD, SCA2 and SCA3. In support of this idea, we demonstrated a connection between abnormal Ca2+ signaling and neuronal cell death in experiments with HD, SCA2 and SCA3 transgenic mouse models. Additional data in the literature indicate that abnormal neuronal Ca2+ signaling may also play an important role in pathogenesis of SCAl, SCA5, SCA6, SCA14 and SCA15/16. Based on these results I propose that IP3R and other Ca2+ signaling proteins should be considered as potential therapeutic targets for treatment of HD and SCAs.

Keywords

Calcium signaling Huntingtin Neurodegeneration Polyglutamine expansion Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate Ataxin-2 Ataxin-3 Spinocerebellar ataxias Transgenic mice NMDA receptor Apoptosis Mitochondria Memantine 

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, ND12.200AAUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at DallasDallasUSA

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