Cytokine and Growth Factor Concentration in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Hydrocephalus Following Endovascular Embolization of Unruptured Aneurysms in Comparison with Other Types of Hydrocephalus
To better understand the development of hydrocephalus of different origins, we evaluated cytokine and growth factor concentration in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with hydrocephalus. CSF was collected from patients developing hydrocephalus following hemorrhage (n = 15), patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (n = 10), and following the embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (n = 9). Myelography patients (n = 15) served as controls. Quantification of 11 molecules relating angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing in the CSF was performed using ELISA. All three hydrocephalus groups had decreased concentration of TIMP-4 compared to the normal group. The hemorrhage group showed increased concentration of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 compared to the control group. The unruptured aneurysm group had increased concentration of IL-6 and decreased concentration of TIMP-2 compared to the control group. Compared to the normal patients, increased concentrations of wound healing molecules were evident in all three groups. Increased inflammation was evident in the hemorrhage and unruptured aneurysm groups.
KeywordsCSF Cytokines Growth factors Hydrocephalus Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Funding for this study was provided by MicroVention Terumo. Julie Shum and Gregory Cruise are employees of MicroVention Terumo. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance with statistical methods of Anita Iannucci, Ph.D. of the UC-Irvine Center for Statistical Consulting.
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