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Neurochemical Research

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 693–701 | Cite as

Acute Restraint Stress Enhances Calcium Mobilization and Glutamate Exocytosis in Cerebrocortical Synaptosomes from Mice

  • Eiki SatohEmail author
  • Shusuke Shimeki
Original Paper

Abstract

Acute stress is known to enhance the memory of events that are potentially threatening to the organisms. Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, plays a critical role in learning and memory formation and calcium (Ca2+) plays an essential role in transmitter release from nerve terminals (synaptosomes). In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute restraint stress on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and glutamate release in cerebrocortical synaptosomes from mice. Acute restraint stress caused a significant increase in resting [Ca2+]i and significantly enhanced the ability of the depolarizing agents K+ and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to increase [Ca2+]i. It also brought about a significant increase in spontaneous (unstimulated) glutamate release and significantly enhanced K+- and 4-AP-induced Ca2+-dependent glutamate release. The pretreatment of synaptosomes with a combination of ω-agatoxin IVA (a P-type Ca2+ channel blocker) and ω-conotoxin GVIA (an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker) completely suppressed the enhancements of [Ca2+]i and Ca2+-dependent glutamate release in acute restraint-stressed mice. These results indicate that acute restraint stress enhances K+- or 4-AP-induced glutamate release by increasing [Ca2+]i via stimulation of Ca2+ entry through P- and N-type Ca2+ channels.

Keywords

Acute restraint stress Ca2+ channel Cerebrocortical synaptosome Cytosolic free Ca2+ Glutamate release 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by grants from the Research Foundation of Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Animal Hygiene and Food SafetyObihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary MedicineObihiroJapan

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