Neurochemical Research

, 34:407 | Cite as

Does Hypothermic Treatment Provide an Advantage After Spinal Cord Injury Until Surgery? An Experimental Study

  • Bulent Duz
  • Metin Kaplan
  • Serkan Bilgic
  • Ahmet Korkmaz
  • Serdar Kahraman
Original Paper


We compared the effects of early and late stage hypothermia treatment after spinal cord injury. Five groups each consisting of seven rats were included in this study. In Group 1a (Clip applied-non-treatment group) and Group 1b (Clip applied-treated group) the spinal cords were harvested 1 h after the injury. In Group 2a (clip applied, non-treated group) and Group 2b (clip applied-treated group) the injured segments were harvested 24 h after injury. Group 3 was designed as the sham-operated group. The significantly lower levels of TBARS and GSH-Px in Group 2a, as compared with Group 1b suggests that the hypothermia was effective in the early stage of treatment (P < 0.05). In contrast, TBARS and GSH-Px levels were significantly increased at the 24 h timepoint following treatment (P < 0.05).Short-term systemic hypothermia reduces lipid peroxidation in the early stages after spinal cord injury. This beneficial effect disappears 24 h following systemic hypothermic treatment.


Lipid peroxidation Spinal cord injury Systemic hypothermia 


  1. 1.
    Ducker TB, Kindt GW, Kempe LG (1971) Pathological findings in acute experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 35:700–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Demediuk P, Saunders RD, Clendenon NR et al (1985) Changes in lipid metabolism in traumatized spinal cord. Prog Brain Res 63:1–16Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Broughler JM, Hall ED (1989) Central nervous system trauma and stroke. I. Biochemical considerations for oxygen radical formation and lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 6:2289–2301Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fujimoto T, Nakamura T, Ikeda T et al (2000) Effects of EPC-KI on lipid peroxidation in experimental spinal cord injury. Spine 25:24–29. doi: 10.1097/00007632-200001010-00006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Inamasu J, Nakamura Y, Ichikizaki K (2003) Induced hypothermia in experimental traumatic spinal cord injury an update. J Neurol Sci 209:55–60. doi: 10.1016/S0022-510X(02)00463-X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dimar JR, Shields BC, Zhang YP et al (2000) The role of directly applied hypothermia in spinal cord injury. Spine 25:2294–2302. doi: 10.1097/00007632-200009150-00006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kahraman S, Duz B, Kayali H et al (2007) Effects of methylprednisolone and hyperbaric oxygen on oxidative status after experimental spinal cord injury: a comparative study in rats. Neurochem Res 32:1547–1551. doi: 10.1007/s11064-007-9354-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duz B, Oztas E, Erginay T et al (2007) The effect of moderate hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke on pericyte migration: an ultrastructural study. Cryobiology 55:279–284. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2007.08.009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aydin A, Orhan H, Sayal A et al (2001) Oxidative stress and nitric oxide related parameters in type II diabetes mellitus. Efects of glycemic control. Clin Biochem 34:65–70. doi: 10.1016/S0009-9120(00)00199-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Westergren H, Farooque M, Olsson Y et al (2001) Spinal cord blood flow changes following systemic hypothermia and spinal cord compression injury: an experimental study in the rat using Laser-Doppler flowmetry. Spinal Cord 39:74–84. doi: 10.1038/ PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hagerdal M, Harp J, Nilsson L et al (1975) The effect of induced hypothermia upon oxygen consumption in the rat brain. J Neurochem 24:311–316. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1975.tb11881.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuchner EF, Hansebout RR, Pappius HM (2000) Effects of dexamethasone and of local hypothermia on early and late tissue electrolyte changes in experimental spinal cord injury. J Spinal Disord 13:391–398. doi: 10.1097/00002517-200010000-00004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tuzgen S, Kaynar MY, Guner A et al (1998) The effect of epidural cooling on lipid peroxidation after experimental spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 36:654–657. doi: 10.1038/ PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu WR, Westergren H, Farooque M et al (1999) Systemic hypothermia following compression injury of rat spinal cord: reduction of plasma protein extravasation demonstrated by immunihistochemistry. Acta Neuropathol 98:15–21. doi: 10.1007/s004010051046 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Westergren H, Yu WR, Farooque M et al (1999) Systemic hypothermia following spinal cord compression injury in the rat: axonal changes studied by β-APP, ubiquitin, and PGP immunohistochemistry. Spinal Cord 37:696–704. doi: 10.1038/ PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dietrich WD (1996) Nonpharmocological strategies-moderate hypothermia. In: Narayan RK, Wilberger JE, Povlishock JT (eds) Neurotrauma. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1491–1506Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bulent Duz
    • 1
  • Metin Kaplan
    • 2
  • Serkan Bilgic
    • 3
  • Ahmet Korkmaz
    • 4
  • Serdar Kahraman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, School of MedicineGulhane Military Medical AcademiaAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Neurosurgery, School of MedicineFirat UniversityElazigTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Emergency Medicine, School of MedicineGulhane Military Medical AcademiaAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineGulhane Military Medical AcademiaAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations