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Neurochemical Research

, Volume 32, Issue 11, pp 1906–1918 | Cite as

Metabolic and Antioxidant System Alterations in an Astrocytoma Cell Line Challenged with Mitochondrial DNA Deletion

  • Alfred Orina Isaac
  • Vikas V. Dukhande
  • James C. K. LaiEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, and neurodegeneration, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The major mitochondrial antioxidant system that protects cells consists of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH). To investigate the putative adaptive changes in antioxidant enzyme protein expression and targeting to mitochondria as mtDNA depletion occurs, we progressively depleted U87 astrocytoma cells of mtDNA by chronic treatment with ethidium bromide (EB, 50 ng/ml). Cellular MnSOD protein expression was markedly increased in a time-related manner while that of GPx showed time-related decreases. The mtDNA depletion also altered targeting or subcellular distribution of GPx, suggesting the importance of intact mtDNA in mitochondrial genome-nuclear genome signaling/communication. Cellular NADP+-ICDH activity also showed marked, time-related increases while their GSH content decreased. Thus, our findings suggest that interventions to elevate MnSOD, GPx, NADP+-ICDH, and GSH levels may protect brain cells from oxidative stress.

Keywords

Astrocytoma mtDNA Neurodegeneration Astrocytes Oxidative stress Mitochondrial genome-nuclear genome signaling 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

AZT

Azidothymidine

BCA

Bicinchoninic acid

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

DMEM

Dulbecco’s modified essential medium

ETC

Electron transport chain

EB

Ethidium bromide

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GSH

Glutathione

HEPES

N-2 hydroxyethylpiperazine-N`-2 ethane sulfonic acid

ICDH

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

MnSOD

Manganese superoxide dismutase

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

NADP+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

nDNA

Nuclear DNA

PVDF

Polyvinylidene fluoride

PD

Parkinson’s disease

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid

U87

A human astrocytoma cell line

Notes

Acknowledgements

Our studies were supported by a grant from Idaho Biomedical Research Infrastructure Network (NIH NCRR BRINIP20RR016454), and a small project grant from the Mountain States Tumor and Medical Research Institute.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred Orina Isaac
    • 1
  • Vikas V. Dukhande
    • 1
  • James C. K. Lai
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesCollege of Pharmacy and Biomedical Research Institute, Idaho State UniversityPocatelloUSA
  2. 2.Mountain States Tumor and Medical Research InstituteBoiseUSA

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