Neurochemical Research

, Volume 32, Issue 12, pp 2032–2045 | Cite as

Cell–cell Signaling in the Neurovascular Unit

  • Josephine Lok
  • Punkaj Gupta
  • Shuzhen Guo
  • Woo Jean Kim
  • Michael J. Whalen
  • Klaus van Leyen
  • Eng H. Lo
Original Paper

Abstract

Historically, the neuron has been the conceptual focus for almost all of neuroscience research. In recent years, however, the concept of the neurovascular unit has emerged as a new paradigm for investigating both physiology and pathology in the CNS. This concept proposes that a purely neurocentric focus is not sufficient, and emphasizes that all cell types in the brain including neuronal, glial and vascular components, must be examined in an integrated context. Cell–cell signaling and coupling between these different compartments form the basis for normal function. Disordered signaling and perturbed coupling form the basis for dysfunction and disease. In this mini-review, we will survey four examples of this phenomenon: hemodynamic neurovascular coupling linking blood flow to brain activity; cellular communications that evoke the blood–brain barrier phenotype; parallel systems that underlie both neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the CNS; and finally, the potential exchange of trophic factors that may link neuronal, glial and vascular homeostasis.

Keywords

Neurodegeneration Stroke Blood–brain barrier Neurogenesis Angiogenesis Neuroprotection 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funded in part by NIH grants R01-NS37074, R01-NS40529, R01-NS48422, R01-NS53560, R01-NS56458, R01-NS47447, P50-NS10828, P01-NS55104, and a Bugher award from the American Heart Association. Many of the ideas presented here come from many leaders in the field. Key concepts were derived from seminal reviews in the area, especially the following: Abbott, N.J. et al, J of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2006; Carmeliet, P., Nature Reviews Genetics 2003 ; Drake, C.T. et al, Brain and Language 2006; Kim, J.H. et al, J of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2006; Iadecola, C., Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2004; Park, J.A. et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003; Pelligrino, D.A., J. Appl Physiol 2006; Ward, N.L. et al, Neurological Research 2004. We apologize to our many colleagues whose work we could not directly acknowledge due to space limitations.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josephine Lok
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Punkaj Gupta
    • 3
  • Shuzhen Guo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Woo Jean Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael J. Whalen
    • 3
  • Klaus van Leyen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eng H. Lo
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and NeurologyMassachusetts General HospitalCharlestownUSA
  2. 2.Program in NeuroscienceHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Pediatric Critical Care MedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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