Advertisement

Neophilologus

, Volume 99, Issue 4, pp 685–696 | Cite as

Making a Difference: Bilingualism and Re-creation in Charles d’Orléans

  • Anne L. KlinckEmail author
Article
  • 151 Downloads

Abstract

In the course of his 25-year captivity in England during the Hundred Years War, Charles duc d’Orléans produced two similar sequences of lyric poetry, purporting to be a reflection of his romantic life, his suffering after the death of his first love, and his eventual finding of a second love. One sequence is written in French, preserved in Charles’ autograph manuscript (Paris BN fr. 25458), and one in English (in London BL Harley 682). One assumes that the French poems were directed at Charles’ French, the English at his English public. But, since the now English-speaking upper class at this period usually knew French well, the impetus behind the English version cannot have been a need to make the inaccessible accessible. Attention to some highly interesting differences between Charles’ French and English poems, and also to his own words about his craft, provides a possible explanation of what that impetus might be.

Keywords

Fifteenth century Medieval poetry Charles d’Orleans Translation between French and English Self-translation 

References

  1. Arn, M.-J. (1993). Charles of Orleans and the poems of BL MS Harley 682. English Studies, 3, 222–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arn, M.-J. (1994). Fortunes Stabilnes: Charles of Orleans’s English book of love. A (critical ed.). Binghamton: SUNY Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies.Google Scholar
  3. Arn, M.-J. (2000). Two manuscripts, one mind: Charles d’Orléans and the production of manuscripts in two languages (Paris, BN MS fr. 25458 and London, BL MS Harley 682). In M.-J. Arn (Ed.), Charles d’Orléans in England (pp. 61–78). Cambridge: Brewer.Google Scholar
  4. Arn, M.-J. (2008). The poet’s notebook: The personal manuscript of Charles d’Orléans (Paris, BnF, MS fr.25458). Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
  5. Boffey, J. (1985). Manuscripts of English courtly love lyrics in the later Middle Ages. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer.Google Scholar
  6. Boffey, J. (1988). French lyrics and English manuscripts: The transmission of some poems in TCC MS R.3.20 and BL MS Harley 73333. Text, 4, 135–146.Google Scholar
  7. Butterfield, A. (2009). The familiar enemy: Chaucer, language, and nation in the Hundred Years War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butterfield, A. (2012). Rough translation: Charles d’Orléans, Lydgate and Hoccleve. In E. Campbell & R. Mills (Eds.), Rethinking medieval translation: Ethics, politics, theory (pp. 204–225). Cambridge: Brewer.Google Scholar
  9. Calin, W. (1994). Will the real Charles of Orleans please stand! Or who wrote the English poems in Harley 682? In K. Busby & N. J. Lacy (Eds.), Conjunctures: Medieval studies in honor of Douglas Kelly (pp. 69–86). Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  10. Champion, P. (1923–1927). (Ed.). Charles d’Orléans: Poésies (Vols. 1–2). Reprinted Paris: Champion (1966).Google Scholar
  11. Cholakian, R. (1984). Deflection/reflection in the lyric poetry of Charles d’Orléans: A psychosemiotic reading. Potomac, MD.: Scripta Humanistica.Google Scholar
  12. Cholakian, R. (2000). Le monde vivant. In Arn (Ed.), Charles d’Orléans in England (pp. 109–121).Google Scholar
  13. Classen, A. (1991). Das autobiographische Lyrik des europäischen Spätmittelalters. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  14. Coldiron, A. E. B. (2000). Canon, period, and the poetry of Charles of Orleans: Found in translation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  15. Coldiron, A. E. B. (2001). Toward a comparative New Historicism: Land tenures and some fifteenth-century poems. Comparative Literature, 53, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coldiron, A. E. B. (2012). Visibility now: Historicizing foreign presences in translation. Translation Studies, 5(2), 189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Copeland, R. (1991). Rhetoric, hermeneutics, and translation in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crane, S. (2003). Charles of Orleans: Self-translation. In Voaden et al. (Eds.), Theory and practice of translation (pp. 169–177).Google Scholar
  19. Curtius, E. R. (1953). European literature and the Latin Middle Ages (W. Trask, Trans.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. (First published as Europaïsche Literatur und lateinisches Mittelalter, 1948).Google Scholar
  20. Damian-Grint, P. (1999). The new historians of the twelfth-century renaissance. Woodbridge: Boydell.Google Scholar
  21. Duncan, T. G. (Ed.). (2013). Medieval English lyrics and carols. Cambridge: Brewer. (An updated edition combining Medieval English lyrics, 12001400, 1995, and Late medieval English lyrics and carols, 14001530, 2000).Google Scholar
  22. Epstein, R. (2003). Prisoners of reflection: The fifteenth-century poetry of exile and imprisonment. Exemplaria, 15(1), 159–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fox, J. (1965). Charles d’Orléans, poète anglais? Romania, 86, 433–462.Google Scholar
  24. Fox, J., & Arn, M.-J. (Eds.). (2010). Poetry of Charles d’Orléans and his circle: A critical edition of BnF MS fr. 25458, Charles d’Orléans’s personal manuscript. Tempe AZ: ACMRS, with Brepols.Google Scholar
  25. Hokenson, J. W., & Munson, M. (2007). The bilingual text: History and theory of literary self-translation. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Kellman, S. G. (2000). The translingual imagination. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  27. Luria, M. S., & Hoffman, R. L. (Eds.). (1974). Middle English lyrics (Norton Critical Edition). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  28. Meier, H. H. (1981). Middle English styles in translation: The case of Chaucer and Charles. In M. Benskin & M. L. Samuels (Eds.), So meny people longages and tongues: Philological essays in Scots and mediaeval English presented to Angus McIntosh (pp. 367–376). Edinburgh: Benskin and Samuels.Google Scholar
  29. Ouy, G. (2000). Charles d’Orléans and his brother Jean d’Angoulême in England: What their manuscripts have to tell. In Arn (Ed.), Charles d’Orléans in England (pp. 47–60).Google Scholar
  30. Ouy, G. (2007). La librairie des frères captifs: Les manuscrits de Charles d’Orléans et Jean d’Angoulême. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
  31. Petrina, A. (2007). Creative ymagynacioun and canon constraints in the fifteenth century: James I and Charles d’Orléans. In J. Roe & M. Stanco (Eds.), Inspiration and technique: Ancient to modern views on beauty and art (pp. 107–125). Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  32. Poirion, D. (1958). Création poétique et composition romanesque dans les premiers poèmes de Charles d’Orléans. Revue de Sciences Humaines, n.s. 90, 185–211.Google Scholar
  33. Santé, L. (1996). Living in tongues. The New York Times, May 12. http://www.nytimes.com
  34. Silverstein, T. (1971). Medieval English lyrics. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  35. Spearing, A. C. (1992). Prison, writing, absence: Representing the subject in the English poems of Charles d’Orléans. Modern Language Quarterly, 53, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spearing, A. C. (1997). A Ricardian ‘I’: The narrator of ‘Troilus and Criseyde’. In A. J. Minnis, C. C. Morse, & T. Turville-Petre (Eds.), Essays on Ricardian literature in honour of J. A. Burrow (pp. 1–22). Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  37. Spearing, A. C. (2000). Dreams in The kingis quair and the Duke’s book. In Arn (Ed.), Charles d’Orléans in England (pp. 123–144).Google Scholar
  38. Spearing, A. C. (2005). Textual subjectivity: The encoding of subjectivity in medieval narratives and lyrics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Steele, R., & Day, M. (Eds.). (1941, 1946). The English poems of Charles of Orleans. EETS o.s. 215 & 220. Reprinted with bibliographical supplement by C. Clark (1970). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Stemmler, T. (1964). Zur Verfasserfrage der Charles d’Orléans zugeschriebenen englischen Gedichte. Anglia, 82, 458–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Venuti, L. (1998). The scandals of translation: Towards an ethics of difference. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Venuti, L. (2008). The translator’s invisibility (2nd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Venuti, L. (2013). Translation changes everything: Theory and practice. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Voaden, R., Tixier, R., Sanchez Roura, T., & Rytting, J. R. (Eds.). (2003). The theory and practice of translation in the Middle Ages. The medieval translator/Traduire au Moyen Age, 8. Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EnglishUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations