Extent of surrounding edema does not correlate with acute complications after radiosurgery for melanoma brain metastases

  • Amelia JardimEmail author
  • Justin Scott
  • Zachery Drew
  • Matthew C. Foote
  • Ananthababu P. Sadasivan
  • Bruce Hall
  • Sarah L. Olson
  • Mihir Shanker
  • Mark B. Pinkham
Clinical Study



To assess whether extent of surrounding edema correlates with acute adverse clinical outcomes within 3 months after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for melanoma brain metastases (BM).


Patients with melanoma BM treated with SRS were included in a single center retrospective analysis. A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain was acquired on the day of treatment and used to calculate the volume of the largest lesion (the index BM) and total volume of all BM. Their corresponding volume of surrounding edema was defined based on the fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. After SRS, MRI was performed every 3 months for at least 2 years if the patient remained well enough to do so. Adverse neurologic events after SRS were defined using common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) version 5.0. Multivariate regression analyses assessed for associations between BM size and edema at baseline with increasing edema and neurologic adverse events within 3 months after SRS.


Mean volume of the index BM reduced from 2.2 to 0.5 cm3 at 3 months after SRS (p = 0.03). Mean volume of edema surrounding the index BM was 6.4 cm3 at baseline, 10.2 cm3 at 3 months and 5.5 cm3 at 6 months. There were 7/43 (16%) patients that experienced an adverse neurological event within 3 months (attributable to any cause) and 4/43 (9%) were associated with an increase in BM edema. On univariate and multivariate analyses, there were no correlations between any baseline factors and volume of edema at 3 months. However, SRS dose delivered and systemic therapy use within 4 weeks of SRS both correlated with a reduction in edema surrounding the index BM.


A transient increase in mean volume of edema was apparent at 3 months after SRS. However, this resolved by 6 months and did not correlate with adverse events or dexamethasone requirement. Thus, the clinical significance is uncertain.


Radiosurgery Gamma knife Melanoma Brain metastases Edema Toxicity 



No funding was received for this project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

All patient data was de-identified prior to review and its use approved by Institutional Review Board from the Princess Alexandra Ethics Committee.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethics approval to conduct research at the Princess Alexandra Hospital was granted by the Centers for Health Research on the 18/07/2017. The approval was subject to researcher compliance throughout the duration of the research with requirements as outlines in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 and Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research. HREC/17/QPAH/379-SSA/17/QPAH/380


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amelia Jardim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Justin Scott
    • 2
  • Zachery Drew
    • 1
  • Matthew C. Foote
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ananthababu P. Sadasivan
    • 1
  • Bruce Hall
    • 1
    • 3
  • Sarah L. Olson
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mihir Shanker
    • 3
    • 4
  • Mark B. Pinkham
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryPrincess Alexandra HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Queensland Facility of Advanced BioinformaticsThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Gamma Knife Centre of QueenslandPrincess Alexandra HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Faculty of MedicineThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

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