Isocitrate dehydrogenase1 mutation reduces the pericyte coverage of microvessels in astrocytic tumours
Tumour-associated angiogenesis is associated with the malignancy and poor prognosis of glioma. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are present in the majority of lower-grade (WHO grade II and III) and secondary glioblastomas, but their roles in tumour angiogenesis remain unclear.
Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the cerebral blood flow (CBF) of IDH-mutated glioma was measured and compared with the IDH-wildtype glioma. The densities of microvessels in IDH-mutated and wildtype astrocytoma and glioblastoma were assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with CD34, and the pericytes were labelled with α-smooth muscle antigen (α-SMA), neural-glial antigen 2 (NG2) and PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β), respectively. Furthermore, glia-specific mutant IDH1 knock-in mice were generated to evaluate the roles of mutant IDH1 on brain vascular architectures. The transcriptions of the angiogenesis-related genes were assessed in TCGA datasets, including ANGPT1, PDGFB and VEGFA. The expressions of these genes were further determined by western blot in U87-MG cells expressing a mutant IDH1 or treated with 2-HG.
The MRI results indicated that CBF was reduced in the IDH-mutated gliomas. The IHC staining showed that the pericyte coverages of microvessels were significantly decreased, but the microvessel densities (MVDs) were only slightly decreased in IDH-mutated glioma. The mutant IDH1 knock-in also impeded the pericyte coverage of brain microvessels in mice. Moreover, the TCGA database showed the mRNA levels of angiogenesis factors, including ANGPT1, PDGFB and VEGFA, were downregulated, and their promoters were also highly hyper-methylated in IDH-mutated gliomas. In addition, both mutant IDH1 and D-2-HG could downregulate the expression of these genes in U87-MG cells.
Our results suggested that IDH mutations could reduce the pericyte coverage of microvessels in astrocytic tumours by inhibiting the expression of angiogenesis factors. As vascular pericytes play an essential role in maintaining functional blood vessels to support tumour growth, our findings imply a potential avenue of therapeutic strategy for IDH-mutated gliomas.
KeywordsGlioma Angiogenesis Isocitrate dehydrogenase Pericytes
We thank Shengcai Lin for valuable discussion and valuable suggestions.
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81572471 and 81772659 to J.Y., 81670792 to L.J.Z.; 81372457 to G.C.; 31671416 to P.Z.H.), State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology (CBSKL2015Z11) and the Booster Program of Xijing Hospital (XJZT15ZL03).
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors indicate no potential conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. Mouse procedure protocols were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Fourth Military Medical University.
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