Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, Volume 138, Issue 2, pp 283–290 | Cite as

Long-term hearing outcomes after gamma knife surgery in patients with vestibular schwannoma with hearing preservation: evaluation in 92 patients with serial audiograms

  • Toshinori HasegawaEmail author
  • Takenori Kato
  • Takashi Yamamoto
  • Takehiro Naito
  • Naoki Kato
  • Jun Torii
  • Kazuki Ishii
Clinical Study


The treatment strategy for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) is controversial, and data concerning the long-term hearing outcomes > 5 years after gamma knife surgery (GKS) are limited. The long-term hearing outcomes after GKS were evaluated in VS patients with hearing preservation. Ninety-two VS patients with a pure tone average (PTA) ≤ 50 dB were evaluated. The median age was 54 years; the median tumor volume was 1.5 cm3. The tumors were treated with a median margin dose of 12 Gy and a median mean cochlear dose of 4.0 Gy. At the time of GKS, 65 patients retained a PTA of 0–30 dB, and 27 had a PTA of 31–50 dB. The median follow-up period was 106 months. At the final follow-up, 2 (2%) developed tumor progression. During the median audiogram follow-up of 83 months, the PTA was ≤ 30 dB in 22 patients (24%) and 31–50 dB in 27 patients (29%); 43 patients (47%) worsened to a PTA > 50 dB. Hearing preservation rates were 66, 57, and 44% at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the mean cochlear dose (P < 0.001) and pre-GKS PTA (P = 0.045) were significant for hearing preservation. GKS was an effective treatment option for VS patients with a PTA ≤ 50 dB. As a lower cochlear dose and better pre-GKS PTA contributed to long-term hearing preservation, prophylactic GKS before hearing deterioration or tumor growth would be a treatment of choice if patients provided informed consent.


Gamma knife Hearing preservation Long-term outcomes Prognostic factor Stereotactic radiosurgery Vestibular schwannoma 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Gamma Knife CenterKomaki City HospitalKomakiJapan

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