Advertisement

Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, Volume 126, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Review of seizure outcomes after surgical resection of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors

  • Phillip A. Bonney
  • Lillian B. Boettcher
  • Andrew K. Conner
  • Chad A. Glenn
  • Robert G. Briggs
  • Joshua A. Santucci
  • Michael R. Bellew
  • James D. Battiste
  • Michael E. Sughrue
Topic Review

Abstract

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are rare tumors that present with seizures in the majority of cases. We report the results of a review of seizure freedom rates following resection of these benign lesions. We searched the English literature using PubMed for articles presenting seizure freedom rates for DNETs as a unique entity. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and operative variables were assessed across selected studies. Twenty-nine articles were included in the analysis. The mean age at surgery across studies was a median of 18 years (interquartile range 11–25 years). The mean duration of epilepsy pre-operatively was a median 7 years (interquartile range 3–11 years). Median reported gross-total resection rate across studies was 79 % (interquartile range 62–92 %). Authors variously chose lesionectomy or extended lesionectomy operations within and across studies. The median seizure freedom rate was 86 % (interquartile range 77–93 %) with only one study reporting fewer than 60 % of patients seizure free. Seizure outcomes were either reported at 1 year of follow-up or at last follow-up, which occurred at a median of 4 years (interquartile range 3–7 years). The number of seizure-free patients who discontinued anti-epileptic drugs varied widely from zero to all patients. Greater extent of resection was associated with seizure freedom in four studies.

Keywords

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor Seizure Surgery Resection Glioneuronal tumor Review 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Phillip Bonney was supported in part by an Alpha Omega Alpha Carolyn L. Kuckein Student Research Fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this report.

References

  1. 1.
    Nowell M, Miserocchi A, McEvoy AW (2015) Tumors in epilepsy. Semin Neurol 35:209–217. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1552628 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nolan MA, Sakuta R, Chuang N, Otsubo H, Rutka JT, Snead OC 3rd, Hawkins CE, Weiss SK (2004) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in childhood: long-term outcome and prognostic features. Neurology 62:2270–2276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chassoux F, Rodrigo S, Mellerio C, Landre E, Miquel C, Turak B, Laschet J, Meder JF, Roux FX, Daumas-Duport C, Devaux B (2012) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: an MRI-based scheme for epilepsy surgery. Neurology 79:1699–1707. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826e9aa9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee J, Lee BL, Joo EY, Seo DW, Hong SB, Hong SC, Suh YL, Lee M (2009) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in pediatric patients. Brain Dev 31:671–681. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2008.10.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang EF, Christie C, Sullivan JE, Garcia PA, Tihan T, Gupta N, Berger MS, Barbaro NM (2010) Seizure control outcomes after resection of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in 50 patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr 5:123–130. doi: 10.3171/2009.8.PEDS09368 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takahashi A, Hong SC, Seo DW, Hong SB, Lee M, Suh YL (2005) Frequent association of cortical dysplasia in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor treated by epilepsy surgery. Surg Neurol 64:419–427. doi: 10.1016/j.surneu.2005.02.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Honavar M, Janota I, Polkey CE (1999) Histological heterogeneity of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour: identification and differential diagnosis in a series of 74 cases. Histopathology 34:342–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thom M, Toma A, An S, Martinian L, Hadjivassiliou G, Ratilal B, Dean A, McEvoy A, Sisodiya SM, Brandner S (2011) One hundred and one dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: an adult epilepsy series with immunohistochemical, molecular genetic, and clinical correlations and a review of the literature. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 70:859–878. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3182302475 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taylor DC, Falconer MA, Bruton CJ, Corsellis JA (1971) Focal dysplasia of the cerebral cortex in epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 34:369–387PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tassi L, Colombo N, Garbelli R, Francione S, Lo Russo G, Mai R, Cardinale F, Cossu M, Ferrario A, Galli C, Bramerio M, Citterio A, Spreafico R (2002) Focal cortical dysplasia: neuropathological subtypes, EEG, neuroimaging and surgical outcome. Brain 125:1719–1732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sisodiya SM (2004) Malformations of cortical development: burdens and insights from important causes of human epilepsy. Lancet Neurol 3:29–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aronica E, Crino PB (2014) Epilepsy related to developmental tumors and malformations of cortical development. Neurotherapeutics 11:251–268. doi: 10.1007/s13311-013-0251-0 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ranger A, Diosy D (2015) Seizures in children with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors of the brain-a review of surgical outcomes across several studies. Childs Nerv Syst 31:847–855. doi: 10.1007/s00381-015-2675-9 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Giulioni M, Marucci G, Martinoni M, Marliani AF, Toni F, Bartiromo F, Volpi L, Riguzzi P, Bisulli F, Naldi I, Michelucci R, Baruzzi A, Tinuper P, Rubboli G (2014) Epilepsy associated tumors: review article. World J Clin Cases 2:623–641. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v2.i11.623 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Englot DJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF (2012) Factors associated with seizure freedom in the surgical resection of glioneuronal tumors. Epilepsia 53:51–57. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03269.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer BW, Chodkiewicz JP, Laws ER Jr, Vedrenne C (1988) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a surgically curable tumor of young patients with intractable partial seizures. Report of thirty-nine cases. Neurosurgery 23:545–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Engel J, Van Ness PC, Rasmussen TB, Ojemann LM (1993) Outcome with respect to epileptic seizures. In: Jr EJ (ed) Surgical treatment of the epilepsies. Raven Press, New York, pp 609–621Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Babini M, Giulioni M, Galassi E, Marucci G, Martinoni M, Rubboli G, Volpi L, Zucchelli M, Nicolini F, Marliani AF, Michelucci R, Calbucci F (2013) Seizure outcome of surgical treatment of focal epilepsy associated with low-grade tumors in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 11:214–223. doi: 10.3171/2012.11.PEDS12137 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garcia-Fernandez M, Fournier-Del Castillo C, Ugalde-Canitrot A, Perez-Jimenez A, Alvarez-Linera J, De Prada-Vicente I, Suarez-Rodriguez J, Bernabeu-Verdu J, Villarejo-Ortega F (2011) Epilepsy surgery in children with developmental tumours. Seizure 20:616–627. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2011.06.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alexiou GA, Varela M, Sfakianos G, Prodromou N (2009) Benign lesions accompanied by intractable epilepsy in children. J Child Neurol 24:697–700. doi: 10.1177/0883073808331079 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kameyama S, Fukuda M, Tomikawa M, Morota N, Oishi M, Wachi M, Kanazawa O, Sasagawa M, Kakita A, Takahashi H (2001) Surgical strategy and outcomes for epileptic patients with focal cortical dysplasia or dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Epilepsia 42(Suppl 6):37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kirkpatrick PJ, Honavar M, Janota I, Polkey CE (1993) Control of temporal lobe epilepsy following en bloc resection of low-grade tumors. J Neurosurg 78:19–25. doi: 10.3171/jns.1993.78.1.0019 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Khajavi K, Comair YG, Wyllie E, Palmer J, Morris HH, Hahn JF (1999) Surgical management of pediatric tumor-associated epilepsy. J Child Neurol 14:15–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Prayson RA, Estes ML (1992) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Am J Clin Pathol 97:398–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alexander H, Tannenburg A, Walker DG, Coyne T (2015) Progressive dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour. J Clin Neurosci 22:221–224. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.07.022 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang PF, Jia YZ, Lin Q, Mei Z, Chen ZQ, Zheng ZY, Zhang HJ, Pei JS, Tian J, Zhong ZH (2015) Intractable occipital lobe epilepsy: clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, and a systematic review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 157:63–75. doi: 10.1007/s00701-014-2217-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yang AI, Khawaja AM, Ballester-Fuentes L, Pack SD, Abdullaev Z, Patronas NJ, Inati SK, Theodore WH, Quezado MM, Zaghloul KA (2014) Multifocal dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours associated with refractory epilepsy. Epileptic Disord 16:328–332. doi: 10.1684/epd.2014.0680 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kanata A, Morioka T, Tsukamoto H, Katsuta T, Suzuki SO (2011) A patient with a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor who underwent epilepsy surgery after initial seizure. Pediatr Neurosurg 47:436–441. doi: 10.1159/000338983 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Emmez H, Kale A, Egemen E, Eser P, Kaymaz M, Pasaoglu A (2012) Intraventricular dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour: case report. Neurol Neurochir Pol 46:192–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Prayson RA, Napekoski KM (2012) Composite ganglioglioma/dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a clinicopathologic study of 8 cases. Hum Pathol 43:1113–1118. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2011.08.023 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tian AG, Edwards MS, Williams NJ, Olson DM (2011) Epilepsy surgery following brain tumor resection in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7:229–234. doi: 10.3171/2010.12.PEDS10293 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barba C, Jacques T, Kahane P, Polster T, Isnard J, Leijten FS, Ozkara C, Tassi L, Giordano F, Castagna M, John A, Oz B, Salon C, Streichenberger N, Cross JH, Guerrini R (2013) Epilepsy surgery in neurofibromatosis type 1. Epilepsy Res 105:384–395. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.02.021 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shinoda J, Yokoyama K, Miwa K, Ito T, Asano Y, Yonezawa S, Yano H (2013) Epilepsy surgery of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors using advanced multitechnologies with combined neuroimaging and electrophysiological examinations. Epilepsy Behav Case Rep 1:97–105. doi: 10.1016/j.ebcr.2013.06.002 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koeller KK, Dillon WP (1992) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: MR appearance. Am J Neuroradiol 13:1319–1325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chassoux F, Landre E, Mellerio C, Laschet J, Devaux B, Daumas-Duport C (2013) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: epileptogenicity related to histologic subtypes. Clin Neurophysiol 124:1068–1078. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.11.015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stanescu Cosson R, Varlet P, Beuvon F, Daumas Duport C, Devaux B, Chassoux F, Fredy D, Meder JF (2001) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: CT, MR findings and imaging follow-up: a study of 53 cases. J Neuroradiol 28:230–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raymond AA, Fish DR, Sisodiya SM, Alsanjari N, Stevens JM, Shorvon SD (1995) Abnormalities of gyration, heterotopias, tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, microdysgenesis, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour and dysgenesis of the archicortex in epilepsy. Clinical, EEG and neuroimaging features in 100 adult patients. Brain 118(Pt.3):629–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davis GA, Kalnins RM, Fabinyi GC (1997) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour and mixed DNET-ganglioglioma: seizure outcome following surgery. J Clin Neurosci 4:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Prayson RA (1999) Composite ganglioglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Arch Pathol Lab Med 123:247–250. doi: 10.1043/0003-9985(1999)123<0247:CGADNT>2.0.CO;2 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Luyken C, Blumcke I, Fimmers R, Urbach H, Elger CE, Wiestler OD, Schramm J (2003) The spectrum of long-term epilepsy-associated tumors: long-term seizure and tumor outcome and neurosurgical aspects. Epilepsia 44:822–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wolf HK, Wellmer J, Muller MB, Wiestler OD, Hufnagel A, Pietsch T (1995) Glioneuronal malformative lesions and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in patients with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 54:245–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ramantani G, Kadish NE, Anastasopoulos C, Brandt A, Wagner K, Strobl K, Mayer H, Schubert-Bast S, Stathi A, Korinthenberg R, Feuerstein TJ, Mader I, van Velthoven V, Zentner J, Schulze-Bonhage A, Bast T (2014) Epilepsy surgery for glioneuronal tumors in childhood: avoid loss of time. Neurosurgery 74:648–657. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000327 discussion 657 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rydenhag B, Flink R, Malmgren K (2013) Surgical outcomes in patients with epileptogenic tumours and cavernomas in Sweden: good seizure control but late referrals. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 84:49–53. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-302449 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spalice A, Ruggieri M, Grosso S, Verrotti A, Polizzi A, Magro G, Caltabiano R, Pavone P, Del Balzo F, Platania N, Iannetti P (2010) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: a prospective clinicopathologic and outcome study of 13 children. Pediatr Neurol 43:395–402. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2010.06.017 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Raymond AA, Halpin SF, Alsanjari N, Cook MJ, Kitchen ND, Fish DR, Stevens JM, Harding BN, Scaravilli F, Kendall B et al (1994) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Features in 16 patients. Brain 117(Pt 3):461–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chan CH, Bittar RG, Davis GA, Kalnins RM, Fabinyi GC (2006) Long-term seizure outcome following surgery for dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. J Neurosurg 104:62–69. doi: 10.3171/jns.2006.104.1.62 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Consales A, Striano P, Nozza P, Morana G, Ravegnani M, Piatelli G, Pavanello M, Zoli ML, Baglietto MG, Cama A (2013) Glioneuronal tumors and epilepsy in children: seizure outcome related to lesionectomy. Minerva Pediatr 65:609–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aronica E, Leenstra S, van Veelen CW, van Rijen PC, Hulsebos TJ, Tersmette AC, Yankaya B, Troost D (2001) Glioneuronal tumors and medically intractable epilepsy: a clinical study with long-term follow-up of seizure outcome after surgery. Epilepsy Res 43:179–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Burneo JG, Tellez-Zenteno J, Steven DA, Niaz N, Hader W, Pillay N, Wiebe S (2008) Adult-onset epilepsy associated with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors. Seizure 17:498–504. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2008.01.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Minkin K, Klein O, Mancini J, Lena G (2008) Surgical strategies and seizure control in pediatric patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: a single-institution experience. J Neurosurg Pediatr 1:206–210. doi: 10.3171/PED/2008/1/3/206 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Santos MV, de Oliveira RS, Machado HR (2014) Approach to cortical dysplasia associated with glial and glioneuronal tumors (FCD type IIIb). Childs Nerv Syst 30:1869–1874. doi: 10.1007/s00381-014-2519-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sakuta R, Otsubo H, Nolan MA, Weiss SK, Hawkins C, Rutka JT, Chuang NA, Chuang SH, Snead OC 3rd (2005) Recurrent intractable seizures in children with cortical dysplasia adjacent to dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. J Child Neurol 20:377–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Blumcke I, Thom M, Aronica E, Armstrong DD, Vinters HV, Palmini A, Jacques TS, Avanzini G, Barkovich AJ, Battaglia G, Becker A, Cepeda C, Cendes F, Colombo N, Crino P, Cross JH, Delalande O, Dubeau F, Duncan J, Guerrini R, Kahane P, Mathern G, Najm I, Ozkara C, Raybaud C, Represa A, Roper SN, Salamon N, Schulze-Bonhage A, Tassi L, Vezzani A, Spreafico R (2011) The clinicopathologic spectrum of focal cortical dysplasias: a consensus classification proposed by an ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission. Epilepsia 52:158–174. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2010.02777.x PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lee DY, Chung CK, Hwang YS, Choe G, Chi JG, Kim HJ, Cho BK (2000) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: radiological findings (including PET, SPECT, and MRS) and surgical strategy. J Neurooncol 47:167–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Qaddoumi I, Ellison DW, Morris EB, Broniscer A, Boop F, Merchant T, Palmer SL, Gajjar A (2010) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and cognitive outcome: cure at a price? Cancer 116:5461–5469. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25528 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ozlen F, Gunduz A, Asan Z, Tanriverdi T, Ozkara C, Yeni N, Yalcinkaya C, Ozyurt E, Uzan M (2010) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and gangliogliomas: clinical results of 52 patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 152:1661–1671. doi: 10.1007/s00701-010-0696-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bilginer B, Yalnizoglu D, Soylemezoglu F, Turanli G, Cila A, Topcu M, Akalan N (2009) Surgery for epilepsy in children with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: clinical spectrum, seizure outcome, neuroradiology, and pathology. Childs Nerv Syst 25:485–491. doi: 10.1007/s00381-008-0762-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cataltepe O, Turanli G, Yalnizoglu D, Topcu M, Akalan N (2005) Surgical management of temporal lobe tumor-related epilepsy in children. J Neurosurg 102:280–287. doi: 10.3171/ped.2005.102.3.0280 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fay-McClymont TB, Hrabok M, Sherman EM, Hader WJ, Connolly MB, Akdag S, Mohamed IS, Wiebe S (2012) Systematic review and case series of neuropsychological functioning after epilepsy surgery in children with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET). Epilepsy Behav 23:481–486. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.12.011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zentner J, Hufnagel A, Wolf HK, Ostertun B, Behrens E, Campos MG, Elger CE, Wiestler OD, Schramm J (1997) Surgical treatment of neoplasms associated with medically intractable epilepsy. Neurosurgery 41:378–386 discussion 386–377 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Degen R, Ebner A, Lahl R, Leonhardt S, Pannek HW, Tuxhorn I (2002) Various findings in surgically treated epilepsy patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors in comparison with those of patients with other low-grade brain tumors and other neuronal migration disorders. Epilepsia 43:1379–1384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fernandez C, Girard N, Paz Paredes A, Bouvier-Labit C, Lena G, Figarella-Branger D (2003) The usefulness of MR imaging in the diagnosis of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in children: a study of 14 cases. Am J Neuroradiol 24:829–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ostertun B, Wolf HK, Campos MG, Matus C, Solymosi L, Elger CE, Schramm J, Schild HH (1996) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: MR and CT evaluation. Am J Neuroradiol 17:419–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Prayson RA, Morris HH, Estes ML, Comair YG (1996) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 tumors including MIB1 immunoreactivity. Clin Neuropathol 15:47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sandberg DI, Ragheb J, Dunoyer C, Bhatia S, Olavarria G, Morrison G (2005) Surgical outcomes and seizure control rates after resection of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors. Neurosurg Focus 18:E5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sharma MC, Jain D, Gupta A, Sarkar C, Suri V, Garg A, Gaikwad SB, Chandra PS (2009) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a clinicopathological study of 32 cases. Neurosurg Rev 32:161–169. doi: 10.1007/s10143-008-0181-1 discussion 169–170 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zhang JG, Hu WZ, Zhao RJ, Kong LF (2014) Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a clinical, neuroradiological, and pathological study of 15 cases. J Child Neurol 29:1441–1447. doi: 10.1177/0883073813490831 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phillip A. Bonney
    • 1
  • Lillian B. Boettcher
    • 1
  • Andrew K. Conner
    • 1
  • Chad A. Glenn
    • 1
  • Robert G. Briggs
    • 1
  • Joshua A. Santucci
    • 1
  • Michael R. Bellew
    • 1
  • James D. Battiste
    • 2
  • Michael E. Sughrue
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA

Personalised recommendations