Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, Volume 124, Issue 3, pp 475–484 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Relationship between inflammatory cytokines and risk of depression, and effect of depression on the prognosis of high grade glioma patients

  • Jian-tong Jiao
  • Jun Sun
  • Jian-fen Ma
  • Min-chao Dai
  • Jin Huang
  • Chen Jiang
  • Cheng Wang
  • Chao Cheng
  • Jun-fei ShaoEmail author
Clinical Study


Depression is found to be associated with up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. However, the relationship in high grade glioma (HGG) patients is still unclear. In this prospective study, a total 132 HGG patients participated in blood sample collection for inflammatory cytokines detection by ELISA, mental status, quality of life (QOL) and physical functional status testing. The association between inflammatory cytokines and depression risk was assessed using conditional logistic regression. The incidences of depressive symptoms and depression in high grade glioama patients were 45.5 and 25 % respectively during 12 months follow-up. We found the risk of depression was elevated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in high grade glioma patients after adjustment of confounders. The serum levels of CRP and IL-6 in patients with transient depression and depression were higher than those without depressive symptoms. In addition, depression had significant effects on the survival, QOL and physical functional status of patients. Depression is prevalent among patients with HGG. The present study suggests that serum CRP and IL-6 may serve as a depression marker for HGG patients. The survival and quality of life of HGG patients may be improved by an effective management for depression.


High grade glioma Depression Inflammatory cytokines Survival Quality of life 



This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC. 81272791).

Conflict of interest

The author confirms that this article content has no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 10 kb)
11060_2015_1861_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 15 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jian-tong Jiao
    • 1
  • Jun Sun
    • 1
  • Jian-fen Ma
    • 1
  • Min-chao Dai
    • 1
  • Jin Huang
    • 1
  • Chen Jiang
    • 1
  • Cheng Wang
    • 1
  • Chao Cheng
    • 1
  • Jun-fei Shao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryWuxi People’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityWuxiChina

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