Favorable survival and metabolic outcome for children with diencephalic syndrome using a radiation-sparing approach
- 432 Downloads
Diencephalic syndrome (DS) is a clinical disorder of metabolism associated with poor outcome in children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Since survival has been primarily reported with aggressive therapy, we report outcome data for these patients using a current, contrasting chemotherapy-driven approach. We performed a population-based review of DS patients treated with chemotherapy from 1997–2012. Metabolic rate was assessed in selected cases using open-circuit calorimetry to generate resting energy expenditure (REE) data. Tumor tissue was analyzed for BRAF alterations. Survival was compared with an age-related, radiotherapy naïve cohort of non-DS children with location-matched LGGs. Nine children (1.7 % of 520 LGG diagnoses) fulfilled DS criteria. The median diagnostic age was 1.49 years (0.55–2.69 years), although neurofibromatosis Type-I patients were older (p = 0.005). All tumors analyzed exhibited either NF1 mutation or BRAF fusion. Seven tumors were histologically confirmed as low grade astrocytomas, one demonstrated neurocytic features, and one NF1 case was diagnosed using imaging and clinical criteria. All patients received chemotherapy, with seven cases also receiving initial nutritional supplementation. All nine gained weight after only 6 months of treatment. Two DS patients had serial REE measurements, revealing a hypermetabolic state (over 200 % of predicted REE) at diagnosis which reduced to normal range with therapy. First-line chemotherapy treatment resulted in one minor response, stable disease in four cases, with progression in the remaining four patients. Although DS patients demonstrated inferior initial progression-free survival when compared to non-DS counterparts (5 years: 22 versus 60 %, p = 0.015), all DS children remain alive at a median follow up of 5.3 years (1.2–14.9 years) with none requiring radiotherapy. Long-term sequelae included pituitary and visual dysfunction, learning difficulties and paradoxical, inappropriate weight gain. DS can be managed with non-aggressive chemotherapeutic, radiation-sparing strategies supplemented by temporary nutritional support. Multiple lines of therapy may be required to overcome disease progression but excellent survival and metabolic outcomes can be achieved. Continued surveillance is mandatory to prevent significant weight gain and support affected children with clinical sequelae.
KeywordsDiencephalic syndrome Pediatric Low grade glioma Chemotherapy Radiation
Supported by B.R.A.I.N. child, Canada (www.sickkids.ca/brainchild); Charity 10808 4419 RR 0001.
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 5.Gnekow AK, Falkenstein F, von Hornstein S, Zwiener I, Berkefeld S, Bison B, Warmuth-Metz M, Driever PH, Soerensen N, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, Faldum A (2012) Long-term follow-up of the multicenter, multidisciplinary treatment study HIT-LGG-1996 for low-grade glioma in children and adolescents of the German Speaking Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology. Neuro Oncol 14:1265–1284PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Laithier V, Grill J, Le Deley MC, Ruchoux MM, Couanet D, Doz F, Pichon F, Rubie H, Frappaz D, Vannier JP, Babin-Boilletot A, Sariban E, Chastagner P, Zerah M, Raquin MA, Hartmann O, Kalifa C (2003) Progression-free survival in children with optic pathway tumors: dependence on age and the quality of the response to chemotherapy—results of the first French prospective study for the French Society of Pediatric Oncology. J Clin Oncol 21:4572–4578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Russell A (1951) A diencephalic syndrome of emaciation in infancy and childhood. Arch Dis Child 26:274Google Scholar
- 12.Hawkins C, Walker E, Mohamed N, Zhang C, Jacob K, Shirinian M, Alon N, Kahn D, Fried I, Scheinemann K, Tsangaris E, Dirks P, Tressler R, Bouffet E, Jabado N, Tabori U (2011) BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion predicts better clinical outcome in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma. Clin Cancer Res 17:4790–4798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Pfister S, Janzarik WG, Remke M, Ernst A, Werft W, Becker N, Toedt G, Wittmann A, Kratz C, Olbrich H, Ahmadi R, Thieme B, Joos S, Radlwimmer B, Kulozik A, Pietsch T, Herold-Mende C, Gnekow A, Reifenberger G, Korshunov A, Scheurlen W, Omran H, Lichter P (2008) BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas. J Clin Invest 118:1739–1749PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Bouffet E, Jakacki R, Goldman S, Hargrave D, Hawkins C, Shroff M, Hukin J, Bartels U, Foreman N, Kellie S, Hilden J, Etzl M, Wilson B, Stephens D, Tabori U, Baruchel S (2012) Phase II study of weekly vinblastine in recurrent or refractory pediatric low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 30:1358–1363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Energy and protein requirements (1985) Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 724: 1–206Google Scholar
- 28.von Hornstein S, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, Emser A, Warmuth-Metz M, Soerensen N, Straeter R, Graf N, Thieme B, Gnekow AK (2011) Impact of chemotherapy on disseminated low-grade glioma in children and adolescents: report from the HIT-LGG 1996 trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56:1046–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Ater JL, Zhou T, Holmes E, Mazewski CM, Booth TN, Freyer DR, Lazarus KH, Packer RJ, Prados M, Sposto R, Vezina G, Wisoff JH, Pollack IF (2012) Randomized study of two chemotherapy regimens for treatment of low-grade glioma in young children: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 30:2641–2647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar