Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, Volume 109, Issue 2, pp 315–321 | Cite as

Potential risk factors for incident glioblastoma multiforme: the Honolulu Heart Program and Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

  • James S. NelsonEmail author
  • Cecil M. Burchfiel
  • Desta Fekedulegn
  • Michael E. Andrew
Clinical Study


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common adult primary malignant brain tumor. Ninety percent of adult GBM patients die within 24 months after diagnosis. The etiology of GBM is unknown. The Honolulu Heart Program (HHP) and Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) are prospective, cohort studies of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease based on 8,006 Japanese–American men followed since 1965. The Japan Hawaii Cancer Study provides data on incident cancer cases in the HHP/HAAS cohort. We used data from these studies to obtain epidemiologic information about GBM. GBM cases were identified by searching the 1965–1998 databases using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) codes. Nine histologically confirmed GBM cases, 58–80 years old, were identified. The incidence rate was 6.2/100,000 person–years. Records of each case were reviewed. Selected variables from the first three examinations (1965–1968; 1968–1970; 1971–1974) were used to identify potential candidate GBM risk factors. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed sugar intake and occupational exposure to carbon tetrachloride were independently and significantly associated with development of GBM.


Brain tumor Cancer Epidemiology Glioma Risk factors 



This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contract N01-HC-05102 and National Institute on Aging contract N01-AG-4-2149) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (contract HELD 00B0060). The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • James S. Nelson
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cecil M. Burchfiel
    • 3
  • Desta Fekedulegn
    • 3
  • Michael E. Andrew
    • 3
  1. 1.Pacific Health Research InstituteHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Virginia BeachUSA
  3. 3.Biostatistics and Epidemiology BranchHealth Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionMorgantownUSA

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