Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, 91:127 | Cite as

In vivo bioluminescence imaging in an experimental mouse model for dendritic cell based immunotherapy against malignant glioma

  • W. Maes
  • C. Deroose
  • V. Reumers
  • O. Krylyshkina
  • R. Gijsbers
  • V. Baekelandt
  • J. Ceuppens
  • Z. Debyser
  • S. W. Van Gool
Laboratory Investigation - Human/animal Tissue


The value of bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for experimental cancer models has become firmly established. We applied BLI to the GL261 glioma model in the context of dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy. Initial validation revealed robust linear correlations between in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro luciferase activity measurements. Ex vivo BLI demonstrated midline crossing and leakage of tumor cells. Orthotopically challenged mice followed with BLI showed an initial adaptation phase, after which imaging data correlated linearly with stereologically determined tumor dimensions. Transition from healthy to moribund state corresponded with an increasing in vivo flux but the onset of neurological deficit was clearly delayed compared to the onset of in vivo flux increase. BLI was implemented in prophylactic immunotherapy and imaging data were prognostic for therapy outcome. Three distinct response patterns were detected. Our data underscore the feasibility of in vivo BLI in an experimental immunotherapeutic setting in the GL261 glioma model.


Malignant glioma Immunotherapy Dendritic cells In vivo bioluminescence Stereomicroscopy Validation 



W.M. is supported by the Olivia Hendrickx Research Fund. V.R. is funded by a Ph.D. grant from the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT Vlaanderen). R.G. is a postdoctoral fellow of the Fund for Scientific Research—Flanders. S.VG. is a Senior Clinical Investigator of the Fund for Scientific Research—Flanders. We thank Vigdis Vanbeselare for excellent assistance with the animal experiments in this study. This work was supported by the Olivia Hendrickx Research Fund ( and MoSAIC Excellence funding.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Maes
    • 1
  • C. Deroose
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • V. Reumers
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • O. Krylyshkina
    • 2
    • 5
  • R. Gijsbers
    • 2
    • 3
  • V. Baekelandt
    • 3
    • 5
  • J. Ceuppens
    • 1
  • Z. Debyser
    • 2
    • 3
  • S. W. Van Gool
    • 1
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Department of Experimental MedicineKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, Department of Molecular and Cellular MedicineKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center (MoSAIC)Katholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  4. 4.Division of Nuclear MedicineUniversity Hospital Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  5. 5.Laboratory for Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, Department of Molecular and Cellular MedicineKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  6. 6.Pediatric hemato-oncology, Department of Child and WomanKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  7. 7.University Hospital GasthuisbergLeuvenBelgium

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