Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 339–357 | Cite as

Cytotoxic chemotherapeutic management of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme

  • Camilo E. Fadul
  • Patrick Y. Wen
  • Lyndon Kim
  • Jeffrey J. Olson
Invited Manuscript

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to acknowledge Beverly Murphy for her assistance in creating a coherent series of literature searches. Additionally we wish to thank Stephen Haines, MD, Jack Rock, MD, and Tom Mikkelson, MD for their review and consultations regarding this work. The authors also wish to express appreciation to the AANS/CNS Joint Guidelines Committee for their review, comments and suggestions. We also thank Linda Phillips for meeting organization and collection of materials and Emily Feinstein for her assistance in editing the material for publication.

References

  1. 1.
    Chang CH, Horton J, Schoenfeld D, Salazer O, Perez-Tamayo R, Kramer S, Weinstein A, Nelson JS, Tsukada Y (1983) Comparison of postoperative radiotherapy and combined postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the multidisciplinary management of malignant gliomas. Cancer 52:997–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takakura K, Abe H, Tanaka R, Kitamura K, Miwa T, Takeuchi K, Yamamoto S, Kageyama N, Handa H, Mogami H, Nishimoto A, Uozumi T, Matsutani M, Nomura K (1986) Effects of ACNU and radiotherapy on malignant gliomas. J Neurosurg 64:53–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Medical Research Council Brain Tumour Working Party (2001) Randomized trial of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in the adjuvant treatment of high-grade astrocytoma: a medical research council trial. J Clin Oncol 19:509–518Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grossman SA, O’Neill A, Grunnet M, Mehta M, Pearlman JL, Wagner J, Gilbert M, Newton HB, Hellman R (2003) Carmustine and cisplatin followed by radiation therapy with radiation therapy and concurrent carmustine in patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial 2394. J Clin Oncol 21:1485–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fine HA, Dear KBG, Loeffler JS, Black PM, Canellos GP (1993) Meta-analysis of radiation therapy with and without adjuvant chemotherapy for malignant gliomas in adults. Cancer 71:2585–2597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lai R, Chu R, Fraumeni M, Thabane L (2006) Quality of randomized controlled trials reporting in the primary treatment of brain tumors. J Clin Oncol 24:1136–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C, Bogdahn U, Curschmann J, Janzer RC, Ludwin SK, Gorlia T, Allgeier A, Lacombe D, Cainrcross JG, Eisenhauer E, Mirimanoff RO (2005) Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. New Engl J Med 352:987–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hegi ME, Diserens AC, Gorlia T, Hamou MF, de Tribolet N, Weller M, Kros JM, Hainfellner JA, Mason W, Mariani L, Bromberg JE, Hau P, Mirimanoff RO, Cairncross JG, Janzer RC, Stupp R (2005) MGMT gene silencing and benefit from temozolomide in glioblastoma. New Eng J Med 352:997–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bullock R, Chestnut RM, Clifton G, Ghajar J, Marion DW, Narayan RK, Newell DW, Pitts LH, Rosner MJ, Wilberger JW (1996) Guidelines for the management of severe head injury: Brain Trauma Foundation. Eur J Emerg Med 3:109–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Walters BC (1998) Clinical practice parameter development in neurosurgery. In: Bean JR (ed) Neurosurgery in transition: the socioeconomic transformation of neurological surgery. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 99–111Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glioma Meta-analysis Trialists Group (2002) Chemotherapy in adult high-grade gliomas: a systemic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 12 randomised trials. Lancet 359:1011–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deutsch M, Green SB, Strike TA, Burger PC, Robertson JT, Selker RG, Shapiro WR, Mealey J Jr, Ransohoff JII, Paoletti P, Smith KR Jr, Odom GL, Hunt WE, Young B, Alexander E Jr, Walker MD, Pistenmaa DA (1989) Results of a randomized tiral comparing BCNU plus radiotherapy, streptozotocin plus radiotherapy, and BCMU following misonidazole plus radiotherapy in the postoperative treatment of malignant gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 16:1389–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dinapoli R, Brown LD, Arusell RM, Earle JD, O’Fallon JR, Buckner JC, Scheithauer BW, Krook JE, Tschetter LK, Maier JA, Pfeifle DM, Gesme DJ Jr (1993) Phase III comparative evaluation PCNU and carmustine combined with radiation therapy for high-grade-glioma. J Clin Oncol 11:1316–1321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stupp R, Dietrich PY et al (2002) Promising survival for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme treated with concomitant radiation plus temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. J Clin Oncol 20(5):1375–1382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weller M, Muller B, Koch R, Bamberg M, Krauseneck P, Neuro-Oncology Working Group of the German Cancer Society (2003) Neuro-oncology working group 01 Trial of nimustine plus teniposide versus nimustine plus cytarabine chemotherapy in addition to involved-field radiotherapy in the first-line treatment of malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol 21:3276–3284Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    DerSimonian R, Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis of clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7:177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Piedbois P (2004) Meta-analysis based on abstracted data: a step in the right direction, but only a first step. J Clin Oncol 19:3839–3841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lamborn KR, Chang SM, Prados MD (2004) Prognostic factors for survival of patients with glioblastoma: recursive partitioning analysis. Neuro-Oncology 6:227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lai R, Rong C, Fraumeni M, Thabane L (2006) Quality of randomized controlled trials reporting the primary treatment of brain tumors. J Clin Oncol 24:1136–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moher E, Schulz DF, Altman DG (2001) The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. Lancet 357:1191–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Halperin EC, Herndon J, Schold SC, Brown M, Vick N, Cairncross JG, Macdonald DR, Gaspar L, Fischer B, Dropcho E, Rosenfeld S, Morowitz R, Piepmeier J, Hait W, Byrne T, Salter M, Imperato J, Khandekar J, Paleologos N, Burger P, Bentel GC, Friedman A (1996) A phase III randomized prospective trial of external beam radiotherapy, mitomycin C, carmustine, and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of adults with anaplastic glioma of the brain. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 34:793–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mahaley MS Jr, Whaley RA, Krigman MRE, Bouldin TW, Bertsch L, Cush S (1987) Randomized phase III trial of single versus multiple chemotherapeutic treatment following surgery and during radiotherapy for patients with anaplastic gliomas. Surg Neurol 27:430–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hatlevoll R, Lindegaard KR, Hagen S, Kristiansen K, Nesbakken R, Torvik A, Ganz JC, Mella O, Rosengren B, Ringkjob R, Arnasson O, Lindgren S, Lipecki M, Notter G, Littbrand B, Saterborg NE, Benediktsson G, Johansson L, Spannare B, Brun A, Berthelsen A, Busch H, Gronbaek E, Rygard J, Haase JP, Lambrethsen E, Midholm S, Sehested P, Heikkinen M, Nystrom S, Taskinen P, Mantyla M, Elgen K, Aaskoven O, DeGaris ST, Jensen RH, Matheson I (1985) Combined modality treatment of operated astrocytomas grade 3 and 4. Cancer 56:41–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kristiansen K, Hagen S, Kollevold T, Torvik A, Holme I, Nesbakken R, Hatlevoll R, Lindgren M, Brun A, Lindgren S, Notter G, Andersen AP, Elgen E (1981) Combined modality therapy of operated astrocytomas grade III and IV. Confirmation of the value of postoperative irradiation and the lack of potentiation of bleomycin on survival time. Cancer 47:649–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walker MD, Green SB, Byar DP, Alexander E Jr, Batzdorf U, Brooks WH, Hunt WE, MacCarty CS, Manaley JS, Mealey J Jr, Owens G, Ransohoff J, Robertson JT, Shapiro WR, Smith KR, Wilson CB, Strike TA (1980) Randomized comparisons of radiotherapy and nitrosoureas for the treatment of malignant glioma after surgery. N Engl J Med 303:1323–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Walker MD, Alexander E, Hunt WE, Leventhal CM, Mahaley MS, Mealey J, Norrell HA, Owens G, Ransohoff J, Wilson CB, Gehan EA (1976) Evaluation of mithramycin in the treatment of anaplastic gliomas. J Neurosurg 44:655–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shapiro WR, Green SR, Burger PC, Mahaley MS, Selker RG, VanGilder JC, Robertson JT, Ransohoff J, Mealey J Jr, Strike TA, Pistenmaa DA (1989) Randomized trial of three chemotherapy regimens and two radiotherapy regimens in postoperative treatment of malignant glioma. Brain Tumor Cooperative Group Trial 8001: J Neurosurg 71:1–9Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shapiro WM, Green SB, Burger PC, Selker RG, VanGilder JC, Robertson JT, Mahaley MS (1992) A randomized comparison of intra-arterial versus intravenous BCNU with or without intravenous 5-fluorouracil for newly diagnosed patients with malignant glioma. J Neurosurg 76:772–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schold C Jr, Herndon JE, Burger PC, Halperin EC, Vick NA, Carincross JG, Macdonald DR, Dropcho EJ, Morawetz R, Bigner DD, Mahaley MS Jr (1993) Randomized comparison of diaziquone and carmustine in the treatment of adults with anaplastic glioma. J Clin Oncol 11:77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hildebrand J, Sahmoud T, Mignolet F, Brucher JM, Afra D (1994) Adjuvant therapy with dibromodulcitol and BCNU increases survival of adults with malignant gliomas. Neurology 44:1479–1483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Afra D, Kerpel-Fronius S, Szinai I, Koesis B, Eckhardt S (1990) Combined treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma (grade 3–4) with diacetyl-dianhydro-galactitol. J Neurooncol 8:85–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fountzilas G, Karavelis A, Makrantonakis P, Selviaridis P, Tzizikas J, Kalogera-Fountzila A, Hatzibaloglou A, Karkavelas G, Foroglou G, Tourkantonis A (1997) Concurrent radiation and intracarotid cisplatin infusion in malignant gliomas: a feasibility study. Am J Clin Oncol 20:138–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lunardi P, Farah JO, Mastronardi L, Puzzilli F, Lo Bianco FM (1996) Intravenous administration of high doses of carboplatin in multimodal treatment of high grade gliomas: a phase II study. Acta Neurochir 138:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mastronardi L, Puzzilli F, Couldwell WT, Farah JO, Lunardi P (1998) Tamoxifen and carboplatin combinational treatment of high-grade gliomas. Results of a clinical trial on newly diagnosed patients. J Neurooncol 38:59–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lassen U, Kristjansen PEG, Wagner A, Kostel-janetz M, Poulsen HS (1999) Treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme with carmustine, cisplatin and etoposide followed by radiotherapy. A phase II study. J Neurooncol 43:161–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wick W, Hermisson M, Kortmann RD, Kuker WM, Duffner F, Dichgans J, Bamberg M, Weller M (2002) Neoadjuvant gemcitabine/treosulfan chemotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. A phase II study. J Neurooncol 59:151–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kuratsu J, Arita N, Kayama T, Kubo N, Sawamura Y, Ushio Y (2000) Phase II trial of pre-irradiation KRN8602 (MX2) in malignant glioma patients. J Neurooncol 48:145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weller M, Streffer J, Wick W, Kortmann RD, Heiss E, Kuker W, Meyermann R, Dichgans J, Bamberg M (2001) Preirradiation gemcitabine chemotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Cancer 91:423–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Choi IS, Lee SH, Kim TY, Bang JS, Paik SH, Kim S, Kim IH, Heo DS, Bang YJ, Kim DG, Jun HW, Kim NK (2002) Phase II study of chemotherapy with ACNU plus cisplatin followed by cranial irradiation in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol 60:171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Calvo FA, Dy C, Henriquez I, Hidalgo V, Bilbao I, Santos M (1987) Postoperative radical radiotherapy with concurrent weekly intra-arterial cis-platinum for treatment of malignant glioma: a pilot study. Radiother Oncol 14:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brandes AA, Rigon A, Zamieri P, Scelzi E, Amsita P, Berti F, Rotilio A, Gardiman M, Fiorentino MV (1996) Early chemotherapy and concurrent radiochemotherapy in high grade glioma. J Neurooncol 30:247–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shinoda J, Sakai N, Hara A, Ueda T, Sadai H, Nakatani K (1997) Clinical trial of external beam-radiotherapy combined with daily administration of low-dose cisplatin for supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme—A pilot study. J Neurooncol 35:73–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Levin VA, Maor MH, Thall PF, Yung WKA, Bruner J, Sawaya R, Kyritsis AP, Leeds N, Woo S, Rodriguez L, Gleason MJ (1995) Phase II study of accelerated fractionation radiation therapy with carboplatin followed by vincristine chemotherapy for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 33:357–364Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Larner JM, Phillips CD, Dion JE, Jensen ME, Newman SA, Jane JA (1995) A phase 1–2 trial of superselective carboplatin and low-dose infusional 5-fluorouracil and concurrent radiation for high grade gliomas. Am J Clin Oncol 18:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fernandez-Hidalgo OA, Vanaclocha V, Vieitez JM, Aristu JJ, Rebollo J, Gurpide A, Aramendia JM, Moreno-Palanques R, Martin-Algarra S, Subira ML, Brugarolas A (1996) High-dose BCNU and autologous progenitor cell transplantation given with intra-arterial cisplatinum and simultaneous radiotherapy in the treatment of high-grade gliomas: benefit for selected patients. Bone Marrow Transpl 18:143–149Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jeremic B, Shibamoto Y, Grujicic D, Stojanovic M, Milicic B, Nikolic N, Dagovic A, Aleksandrovic J (2001) Concurrent accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy and carboplatin/etoposide in patients with malignant glioma: long-term results of a phase II study. J Neurooncol 51:133–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Peterson K, Harsh G, Fisher PG, Adler J, Le Q (2001) Daily low-dose carboplatin as a radiation sensitizer for newly diagnosed malignant glioma. J Neurooncol 53:27–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Muanza T, Shenouda G, Souhami L, Leblanc R, Mohr G, Corns R, Langleben A (2000) High dose tamoxifen and radiotherapy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme: a phase Ib study. Can J Neurol Sci 27:302–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schuck A, Muller SB, Kohler A, Donemann S, Weinstroer M, Mosler C, Rube CE, Wassmann H, Willich N, Rube C (2002) Combined radiochemotherapy with paclitaxel in the treatment of malignant glioma. Strahlenther Onkol 178:486–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vinolas N, Gil M, Verger E, Villa S, Pujol T, Ceral L, Garcia M, Graus F (2002) Pre-irradiation semi-intensive chemotherapy with carboplatin and cyclophosphamide in malignant glioma: a phase II study. Anticancer Drugs 13:163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bashir R, Hochberg FH, Linggood RM, Hottleman K (1988) Pre-irradiation internal carotid artery BCNU in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg 68:917–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Buckner JC, Schomberg PJ, McGinnis WL, Cascino TL, Scheithauer W, O’Fallon JR, Morton RF, Kuross SA, Mailliard JA, Hatfield AK, Cole JU, Steen PD, Bernath AM (2001) A phase III study of radiation therapy plus carmustine with or without recombinant interferon-α in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed high grade glioma. Cancer 92:420–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Avellanosa AM, West CR, Tsukada Y, Higby DJ, Bakshi S, Reese PA, Jennings E (1979) Chemotherapy of nonirradiated malignant gliomas. Phase II: study of the combination of methyl-CCNU, vincristine, and procarbazine. Cancer 44:839–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wolff SN, Phillips GL, Herzig GP (1987) High-dose carmustine with autologous bone marrow transplantation for the adjuvant treatment of high grade gliomas of the central nervous system. Cancer Treat Rep 71:183–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Balana C, Ramirz JL, Taron M, Roussos Y, Ariza A, Ballester R, Sarries C, Mendez P, Sanchez JJ, Rosell R (2003) O-6 methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation in serum and tumor DNA predicts response to 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)–1-nitrosourea but not to temozolomide plus cisplatin in glioblastoma multiforme. Clin Cancer Res 9:1461–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tanaka S, Kamitani H, Amin MR, Watanabe T, Oka H, Fujii K, Nagashima T, Hori T (2000) Preliminary individual adjuvant therapy for gliomas based on the results of molecular analyses for drug resistance genes. J Neurooncol 46:157–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Iwadate Y, Fujimoto S, Namba H, Yamaura A (2003) Promising survival for patients with glioblastoma multiforme treated with individualised chemotherapy based on in vitro drug sensitivity testing. Br J Cancer 89:1896–1900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chinot OL, Barrie M, Frauger E, Dufour H, Figarella-Branger D, Palmari J et al (2004) Phase II study of temozolomide without radiotherapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme in an elderly populations. Cancer 100:2208–2214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lewis JH, Kilgore ML, Goldman DP, Trimble EL, Kaplan R, Montello MJ et al (2003) Participation of patients 65 years of age or older in cancer clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 21:1383–1389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Villa S, Vinolas N, Verger E, Yaya R, Martinez A, Gil M et al (1998) Efficacy of radiotherapy for malignant gliomas in elderly patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42(5):977–980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Keime-Guibert F, Chinot O, Taillandier L, Cartalat-Carel S, Frenay M, Kantor G, Guillamo J-S, Jadaud E, Colin P, Bondiau P-Y, Meneï P, Loiseau H, Bernier V, Honnorat J, Barrié M, Mokhtari K, Mazeron J-J, Bissery A, Delattre J-Y (2007) Radiotherapy for glioblastoma in the elderly. N Engl J Med 356:1527–1535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brandes AA, Vastola F, Basso U, Berti F, Pinna G, Rotilio A et al (2003) A prospective study on glioblastoma in the elderly. Cancer 97:657–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Glantz M, Chamberlain M, Liu Q, Litofsky NS, Recht LD (2003) Temozolomide as an alternative to irradiation for elderly patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas. Cancer 97:2262–2266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Valtonen S, Timonen U, Toivanen P, Kalimo H, Kivipelto L, Heiskanen O, Unsgaard G, Kuurne T (1997) Interstitial chemotherapy with carmustine-loaded polymers for high grade gliomas: a randomized double-blind study. Neurosurgery 41:44–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Westphal M, Hilt DC, Bortey E, Delavault P, Olivares R, Warnke PC, Whittle IR, Jaaskelainen J, Ram Z (2003) A phase 3 trial of local chemotherapy with biodegradable carmistine (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel wafers) in patients with primary malignant gliomas. Neuro Oncol 5:79–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sheleg SV, Korotkevich EA, Zhavrid EA, Muravskaya GV, Smeyanovich AF, Shanko YG, Yurkshtovich TL, Bychkovsky PB, Belyaev SA (2002) Local chemotherapy with ciplatin-depot for glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol 60:53–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Patel SJ, Shapiro WR, Laske DW, Jensen RL, Asher AL, Wessels BW, Carpenter SP, Shan JS (2005) Safety and feasibility of convection-enhanced delivery of Cotara for the treatment of malignant glioma: initial experience in 51 patients. Neurosurgery 56:1243–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Quinn JA, Desjardins A, Weingart J et al (2005) Phase I trial of temozolomide plus O6-benzylguanine for patients with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol 23:7178–7187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Barvaux VA, Ranson M, Brown R et al (2004) Dual repair modulation reverses Temozolomide resistance in vitro. Mol Cancer Ther 3:123–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Woolford LB, Southgate TD, Margison GP et al (2006) The P140 K mutant of human O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) confers resistance in vitro and in vivo to temozolomide in combination with the novel MGMT inactivator O(6)-(4-bromothenyl)guanine. J Gene Med 8:29–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Plummer R, Middleton M, Wilson R, et al (2005) Final clinical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results of the phase I study of the novel poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, AGO14699, in combination with temozolomide AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics Abstr B268Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tentori L, Graziani G (2005) Chemopotentiation by PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy. Pharmacol Res 52(1):25–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tentori L, Leonetti C, Scarsella M et al (2005) Brain distribution and efficacy as chemosensitizer of an oral formulation of PARP-1 inhibitor GPI 15427 in experimental models of CNS tumors. Int J Oncol 26:415–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Weaver KD, Yeyeodu S, Cusack JC Jr, Baldwin AS Jr, Ewend MG (2003) Potentiation of chemotherapeutic agents following antagonism of nuclear factor kappa B in human gliomas. J Neurooncol 61:187–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nakanishi C, Toi M (2005) Nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors as sensitizers to anticancer drugs. Nat Rev Cancer 5(4):297–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kesari S, Ramakrishna N, Sauvageot C, Stiles C, Wen PY (2006) Targeted molecular therapies for recurrent malignant glioma. Curr Oncol Reports 8:58–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wen PY, Kesari S, Drappatz J (2006) Malignant gliomas: strategies to increase the effectiveness of targeted molecular treatment. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 6:733–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Goldbrunner RH, Bendszus M, Wood J, Kiderlen M, Sasaki M, Tonn JC (2004) PTK787/ZK222584, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, decreases glioma growth and vascularization. Neurosurgery 55:426–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Herbst RS, Heymach JV, O’Reilly MS, Onn A, Ryan AJ (2007) Vandetanib (ZD6474): an orally available receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively targets pathways critical for tumor growth and angiogenesis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 16:239–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mathijssen RH, de Jong FA, van Schaik RH, Lepper ER, Friberg LE, Rietveld T et al (2004) Prediction of irinotecan pharmacokinetics by use of cytochrome P450 3A4 phenotyping probes. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:1585–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camilo E. Fadul
    • 1
  • Patrick Y. Wen
    • 2
  • Lyndon Kim
    • 3
  • Jeffrey J. Olson
    • 4
  1. 1.Neuro-Oncology Program, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical CenterDartmouth Medical SchoolLebanonUSA
  2. 2.Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center and Department of NeurologyBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Neuro-oncology Branch, NCINational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations